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NEW FAMILIAR 

ABEMKISamEMISH 

DIALOGUES 

Tbt first nei publlsbtil on the pmuatlcal sjjsteni 



BY 



Jos^AURENT, Abenakis Chief 



QUEBEC 

PRINTED BY LEGER BROUSSEAU 

9, Bnade vStreet 

1884 



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L S "^ 



Entered according to Act of Parliament, in the year one 
thousand eight liundred and eighty-four, by Joseph Laurent, 
in the olTice of the Minister of Agriculture and Statistics of 
the Dominion of Canada. 



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NEW FAMILIAE 

ABENAKI3 and ENGLISH 

DIALOGUES 



The first Vocabulary ever published in the Abenaki* 
language, comprising : 

THE ABENAKIS ALPHABET, 
The Key to the Pronunciation 

AND 

MANY GEAMMATICAL EXPLANATIONS, 

ALSO 

SYNOPTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS BHOWINO THE NUMEROUS 
MODIFICATIONS OP THE 

ABENAKIS VERB, &c. 



TO WHICH IS ADDED 

The Etymology of Indian Names 

OP CERTAIN LOCALITIES, RIVERS, LAKES, Ac, &c. 



ORIGINAL EDITION 

BY 

J03. Laurent, Abenakis, Chief of the Indian Village of 

St Francis, P. Q. 

(Sozap Lold Kizitogu:) 

1884 



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PREFACE 



The primary intention, the chi ef aim of the 
Editor in publishing this book, is to aid the 
young generation of the Abenakis tribe in 
learning English. 

It is also intended to preserve the uncul- 
tivated Abenakis language from the gradual 
alterations which are continually occurring 
from want, of course, of some proper work 
showing the grammatical principles upon 
which it is dependent. Hence the many 
remarks and explanations which are to be 
found all through this book : dpJiers^ italics^ 
etc.y etc.^ employed in view to extend its utility. 

As no pains have been spared to render 
as easy as possible the learning of the pro- 
Bunciation, and the signification of every 
Indian word inserted in this book, and that 
the Abenakis language contains no articula- 



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— 6 — 

tions that the English vocal organs are not 
accustomed to, the writer hopes that many of 
the white people will be glad to avail them- 
selves of the advantage and facility thus 
aflForded to them for becoming acquainted in 
some measure, and with very little trouble, 
with that truly admirable language of those 
Aborigines called Abenakis, which, from the 
original word Wobanakiy means : peasant or 
inhabitant from the East. 

May this little volume, which will learn 
the white man how the Abenakis vocal 
organs express God's attributes, the names 
of the various objects of the creation : beasts, 
birds, fishes, trees, fruits, etc., etc., and how 
extended are the modifications of the 
Abenakis verb, be welcomed by the white as 
well as by the red man, and its errors and 
defects overlooked with indulgence. 

SozAP Lol6, alias, 

JOS. LAUEENT. 



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THE AeENAKIS ALPHABET 

Aa Bb Cc Dd 
£e Gg Hh li 
Jj Ek LI Mm 

Nn OO (0' 6, nasal) 

Pp Ss Tt Uu 
Ww Zz 

Vowels 

Aa Ei li Oo (O'o) Uu 



Diphthongs 

ai ao aO ia io io 
iu ua ue ui u5 



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SYLLABLES 

in progressive scale 



1. a i o o u 

2. ba bi bo da do do ga 
hi jo ko la me ni po so ta 
wo zo 

3. ban den gin jon kas les 
mon nop hla (or Iha) taw 
mow ton gua gai kuo kwa 
gui pia wia 

4. dagw makw guon kwon 
mska kigw ngue tegw tukw 
skua chan chiz 

5. laskw gaskw pskwa Ihagw 
pkuam pkwak wzukw wskit 

6. bapskw gapskw sipskw 
Ihakws mskagw lomskw 

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Words and Syllables 

1. Monosyllables. TI, here; 
tiy tea ; mozy moose ; sen, stone ; 
sihsy duck ; slcog, snake ; kbgw^ 
porcupine. 

2. Dissyllables. A-bon, cake , 
si-bo, river ; nol-lca, deer ; mol- 
sem, wolf; wd-boz,e\k; A-kigw, 
seal. 

3. Trisyllables. Sa-no-ba, man ; 
AUnb'ba, Indian ;pas-tO'm, Ame- 
rican ; pa-po'les, whip-poor-will ; 
pskwa-sorwon, flower. 

4. Polysyllables.^- Jo^-Ar^-^«w, 
oven ; Mo-da-win-no, traveller ; 
pb-ba-tam-win-no^ a christian; 
wi-geS'inO'toin-no, drunkard; a- 
ia-mi-ha»wi~ga-migw, church, 
{lit, meaning: house of prayer). 



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Key of the Pronunciation 



The fifteen consonants of the Abenakis 
Alphabet are sounded, as in English, 6, d 
final being always sounded respectively, as 
p^ t : Azib^ sheep (azip) ; Tabids David, 
(Tabit). 

G is always hard as in good^ begin : x^ego^ 
gum ; tego^ wave. 

The joined letters ch have a lingual-dental 
sound, that is to say softer (more slender) 
than ch in the English words chin^ watch : 
chibaiy ghost ; chiga ? when ? 

I is sounded like ch : Kabij) cabbage, 
(kabich.) 

Ph must not be sounded as/, because this 
letter is not in use in the Abenakis language. 
Thus, phanem^ woman, must be articulated 
nearly as if its proper orthography waspe-ha- 
neniy expressed in two syllables (p'ha-nem). 



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— 11 — 

with an aspirate sound to the first, owing to 
the presence of Jiy which is always more or 
less aspirated. 

All the consonants must be sounded : namas, 
fish ; mdUeniy wolf; abon^ bed. There is no 
exception. 

When a consonant (so as a vowel) is 
doubled — thus : 66, nw, tt — the two letters 
are to be sounded as one, the sound being 
prolonged ; as in the following sentence : 
n^vdnowdziibba nitta^ I should have petitioned 
forthwith. 



The Vowels are sounded as in 
the following scale : 

A as in master : abaznoda^ basket ; 

^ as in label : jpelaZy pigeon ; 

/as in indian : ligudnsogariy thimble ; 

as in notice : todosnSbo, milk ; 

17 is sounded as u in union : 1. When it 
occurs alone ; 2. When it is first in a 
word ; 3. When it is preceded by i: u nia, 



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— 12 — 

this is mine ; ulil niuva^ these are ours. 
But when u is preceded by a coiBonant 
other than g or Jc, it is sounded like e 
(Abenakis). Thus we could a^ well arti- 
culate nibeUy summer, by ni-hun. 



The diphthongs are sounded 
thus : 

Ai as i in wine : n'-dain, I am present ; 

Ao as o in Jiow : chilao, he (she) is cross ; 

la as ia in asiatic : nict, me, to me, I, mine ; 

/o, iu as eo in geometric : loios^ meat, flesh ; 
niunay us, to us, we, our, ours ; 

Z7a, ue^ ui, uo, as wa, toe, wi, zo6,{in Abenakis) : 
taguahogan, mill ; kioiJcuesJcas, robin ; 
Jcwiguigem, black duck ; saguolhigan, 
ramrod, (analogous sound : ta-gwah6gan, 
kui-kwes-kas, kui-gwi-gem, sa-gw61-higan). 

Ad, io, nasal diphthongs, are sounded in the 
same scale as ao, io^ (distinct articulation 
of vowels in one syllable) e. g.pa46^ arrive. 

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NEW FAMILIAK 



Abenakis and English 



DIALOGUES 



VOCABULARY 



Kchi Niwaskw. 

Niwaskowogan. 

Niwaskw. 

Wanamonit. 

Wamitggwsit. 

Wiji-Wliniwaskwit. 

Naeichebikinawsit. 

Tabaldak. 

Nonguichi-Ntatogw. 

Nonguitegilek. 

Askaminnowit. 

Kdemogaldo wogan . 

SasaginnowogTO. 

Sazos. 

Polwakhowawinno. 

Aln6baioso wogan. 

Mamagahodwogan. 

Sidakwtahodwogan. 

Polwakhowawogan. 

Spemkik Alihlod. 



God, The Great Spirit. 

Deity. 

Spirit. 

The Father. 

The Son. 

The Holy Ghost. 

The Trinity. 

The Lord. 

The Almighty. 

The Omnipotent. 

The Eternal. 

Mercy. 

Justice, Perfection. 

Jesus-Ohrist. 

The Saviour. 

The Incarnation. 

The Passion. 

The Crucij&xion. 

The Redemption. 

The Ascension. 



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Polwawogan. 

Logitowadwogan. 

Pobatamwogan. 

"Wlomawaldamwogan. 

Nkawatzowogan. 

Kdemogalgawogan. 



Salvation. 

Adoration. 

Religion. 

Faith. 

Hope. 

Charity. 



OF THE HEAVENS. 



Spemki. 

Asokw. 

Kakasakw. 

O'zali. 
Kchi ozali. 
S6gm6wi Mali. 

Wawasinno. 

Mjejakw. 

Wli mjejakw. 

Wdawasgiskwi. 

Wawasi kigamowinno. 

Kisos. 

Pogwas, nahniboBsat. 

Alakws. 

Kchi alakws. 

Pili kisos. 
Poguasek. 
Managuo/i. 



Heaven, Paradise. 

Firmament, sky, cloud. 

Blue sky ; starry hea- 
ven. 

An angel. 

An arcnangel. 

The Virgin Mary. 

The Holy Virgin. 

A saint, a blessed. 

A soul. 

A blessed soul. 

An apostle. 

An evangelist. 

The sun ; moon ; month. 

The moon. 

A star. 

The morning, or even- 
ing star. 

New moon. 

Moon light. 

A rainbow. 



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— X5 — 

OF THE ELEMENTS AND THINaS 
RELATING TO THEM. 



Awan. 


Air. 


Ezelomsen. 


The wind ; it blows. 


Wlelomsen. 


A gentle breeze. 


({ 


A fresh wind ; fair wind. 


Kisokw. 


The weather ; day ; 
Fair or fine weather. 


Wlekisgad. 


Majekisgad. 


Bad weather ; it is — 


Sogldnkisgad. 


Rainy weather; it is — . 


Wdagkisgad. 


Wet weather, it is — * 


Tka, or tkekisgad. 


Cold weather ; it is — 


Wloda. 


Warm weather ; it is—. 


Nebi. 


Water. 


Solgonbi. 


Eain water. 


Sibobi. 


Eiver water. 


Tkebi. 


Spring water. 


W hawdazibominebi. 


Well water. 


Nbisonbi,!. 5 


Mineral water. 


Pibganbi. 


Muddy water. 


Sotoagw. 1 


The sea, ocean. 


Mamili sobagua. 


The open sea, the high 


Wisaw6ga,Tnak. 6 


J>t5d» , 

A strait ; in the—, at 
the—. 



1. The ciphers set opposite some nouns, in different parts 
of this booK, mark the order of the plural termination to 
which each noun belongs ; those terminations being : 1, a/r ; 
2, ik ; 3, ok ; 4, k ; 5, al ; 6, il ; 7, ol ; 8, I. 

It must be observed, however, that the second termination 
(ik) requires always, before its annexation to the noun, the 
change of* the final d or t into /: Aa&/io2i7, prisoner, pi. 
Kabhozijik ; Cnotkimag, pilot, pi. notkuaagik}. 

The final letter w; in gWf kiOy must be suppressed before the 
annexation of the 7th termination (ol). 



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Senojiwi. 


The bank, the shore. 


Nebes, ( ek) 5 


A lake ; (at, to the—.) 


Nebessis. 5 


A pond. 


Woljebagw. 1 


A marsh. 


Sibo, (tegw, ttegw.) 5 


A river. 


Sibosis. 5 


A brook, stream. 


Panjahlok. ''. 6 


A cascade, a waterfall. 


Pontegw. 1 


A rapid. 


Kchi pontegw. 1 


A grand rapid. 


Tegoak, 


The waves. 


Ki, or Kdakinna. 


The earth ; the globe. 


Towipegw. 


Dust. 


Pegui. 


Sand. 


Senomkol. 


Gravel. 


Azesko. 


Mud. 


Senis. 


A pebble. 


Sen. 


A stone. 


Masipskw. 


A flint. 


Mskoda. 


A plain. '^^ ^ 


Wajo, (aden.) 


A mountain. 


Ka]igapskw. 


A steep rock. 


Kokajigapskw. 1 


An extended steeprock. 


Menahan. Y 


An island. 


Senojisobagwa. 


The sea-coast. 


Skweda. 


Fire, flame. 


Ohekelas. 1 


Spark. 


Pekeda. 


Smoke. 


Wiboda. 


Soot. 


Skwedaipegui. 


Ashes. 


METEORS, 


SHIPS, Etc. 


Wloda. 


Heat ; there is — . 


Tka. 


Cold ; it is — . 


Tkawansen. 


Cool air ; it is cool. 



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— It — 



Pakwsatakisgad. 




Dry weather ; it is — . 


Wdagkisgad. 




Damp weather : it is — . 


Awan. 




The air ; vapour, fog. 


Mnasokw. 




A cloud. 


Pesgawan. 




Foggy ; it is—. 


Soglon. 




Rain ; it rains. 


Pson. 




It snows. 


Wazoli. 




Snow. 


Nebiskat. 




Dew. 


Kladen. 




Frost ; it is frozen. 


Sikwla. 




G-lazed frost. 


Weskata. 




Thaw ; it thaws. 


Pkuami ; pkuamiak 




Ice ; icicles. 


Pabadegw. 


3 


Hail. 


Padogi. 


1 


Thunder. 


Nanamkiapoda. 




An earthquake ; there 


PetgueloTTisen. 




IS"—. 

A whirlwind ; there 


Ktolagw. 


1 


IS — . 
A vessel ; ship ; frigate. 


Abodes. 


5 


A launch, a yawl. 


Pados. 


5 


A boat. 


Stimbot, 


5 


A steamer. 


Mdawakwam. 


1 


The mast. 


Sibakhigana/. 




The sails. 


^^okuahigan. 


5 


The rudder. 


PihanaA:. 




The ropes. 


Mdaw£tgen, 
Wskidolagua. 


1 


The flag. 




The deck ; on the — . 


Alomolagua. 




The hold ; in the—. 


Alomsagw. 


1 


Cabin, chamber. 


Alomsagok. 




In the cabin,— chamber. 


Kaptin. 
2 


1 


The captain. 



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Komi. 1 


The clerk. 


Notkuaag. .2 


The pilot. 


PgoisaA. 


The sailors, the crew. 


Nodaksit. 2 


A seaman. 


THE SEASONS. 


Siguan. 


Spring. 


Siguana. 


Tiast spring. 


Nialisiguana. 


A year ago last spring. 


Siguaga. 


Next spring. 


Siguaniwi. 


In spring. 


Niben. 


Summer. 


Nibena. 


Last summer. 


Nialitnibena. 


A year ago last summer. 


Nibega. 


Next snmmer. 


Nibeniwi. 


In summer. 


Taguogo. 


Autumn, fall. 


Taguogna. 


Last fall. 


Nialitaguogua. 


A year ago last fall. 


Taguogiga. 


Next fall. 


Taguogo wiwi. 
Pebon. 


In fall year. 


Winter. 


Pebona. 


Last winter. 


Nialippona 


A year ago last winter. 


Peboga. 


Next winter. 


Peboniwi. 


In winter. 


THE M^ 


ONTHS. 


Alamikos. 


January. 


Piaodagos. 


February. 


Mozokas. 


March. 


Sogalikas. 


April. 


Kikas. 


May. 



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— 19 



Nakkahigas. 

Temaskikos. 

Temezowas. 

Skamonkas. 

Penibagos. 

Mzatanos. 

Pebonkag. 



June. 

July. 

August. 

September. 

October. 

November. 

December. 



. THE DAYS OF THE WEEK. 



Sanda. 
Kizsanda. 
Nisda alokan. 
Nseda alokan. 
lawda alokan. 
Skawatukwikisgad. 
Kadawsanda. 



Sunday. 

Monday. 

Tuesday. 

Wednesday. 

Thursday. 

Friday. 

Saturday. 



DIVISION OF TIME. 



Kisokw. 

Kisgadiwi. 

Tebokw. 

Niboiwi. 

Sposowiwi. 

Wlogwiwi. 

Paskua. 

Paskuak. 

Nowitebakad. 

Nowitebakak. 

Sokhipozit kisos. 

Nakilhot kisos. 

Pamkisgak. 

Pamloguik. 



The day ; a day. 

In day time. 

The night. 

In the night. 

In the morning. - 

In the evening. 

Noon ; it is noon. 

At noon. 

Midnight; it is midnight 

At midnight. 

Sunrise ; at sunrise. 

Sunset, at sunset. 

To-day. 

This evening. 



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Wlogwa. 

Saba. 

Achakuiwik. 

Ngnedomkipoda. 

Fabasdmkipoda. 

Minit. 

Pazeguen kisokw. 

Nguetsanda. 

Nisda sanda. 

Kisos, or pazeko kisos. 

Waji mojassaik. 

Nowiwi or nanowuwi. 

Matanaskiwi. 
Nguejigaden. 
Nongaejigadegi. 



Yesterday. 
To-morrow. 
The next day. 
An hour ; one o'clock. 
Half an hour. 
A minute. 
A day. 
A week. 
Two weeks. 
A month, 
la the beginning. 
The middle ; at the mid- 
dle. 
The end ; at the end. 
One year. 
Annually. 



MANKIND, KINDREa), Etc. 



Kchai ta wski alnoba =^1 
Kchiphanemtawdosa* 

Alogomomek. 

Nmitogwes. 

Kmitogwes. 

Wmitogwsa. 

Nigawes. 

TTigawessa. 

Nmahom. 

Nttkemes. 

Okemessa. 



The father and the son. 
The mother and the 

daughter. 
The relation. 
My father. 
Thy father. 
His (her) father. 
My mother. 
His (her) mother. 
My grandfather. 
My grandmother. 
His (her) grandmother. 



* Literally : the old man and the young man. 

# The old woman and her daughter. 



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— 21 — 



Their grandmother. 

My husband ; my wife. 

Thy husband, thy wife. 

His wife ; her husband. 

My father-in-law. 

My mother-in-law. 

My son-in-law. 

My daughter-in-law. 

My god-father ; my god- 
mother. 

A lad, a little boy. 

A young little girl. 

My step-father ; my- 
uncle. 

My step-mother ; my 
aunt. 

My grand - son, my 
grand-daughter. 

His (her) grand child. 

My brother ; (a term 
peculiar to a male.) 

My sister ; (term pecu- 
liar to a female.) 

My brother ; (when the 
speaker is a female,) 

My sister ; (when the 
speaker is a male.) 

My brother, (older than 

I.) 

a. Nijia, a term peculiar to a male, signifies also : cousin 
of mine, the son ofmy futher's brother, or of my moth^r^s sister. 

b. /fi$sakaso, a term peculiar to a female, signifies also : 
cousin of mine, the daughter of my father's brother, or of my 
mother's sister. 



Okemeswo. 

Niswiak. 

Niswiakw. 

Niswiidiji. 

Nzihlos. , 

Nzegues. 

TVazilmitorwazilmegoa 


Kalnegoa. 




Wskinnossis. 

Nokskuasis. 

Nojikw. 




Kokemis. 




Noses. 




Osessa. 
Nijia. a 




Nitsakaso. b 




Nidobso. 




Nidobso. 




Nidokan. 





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n-- 







Nokem 

Nokemis 

Nadogwes. 

Nadogwseskua. 



Nadogwsis. 



Nadogw. 



si^ 



My sister, (older than I.) 
My brother, my sister, 

(younger than I.) 
My uncle, (my father's 

brother.) 
1 My uncle, (my mother's 

brother,) 
My aunt, (my father's 

sister* ) 
My aunt, (my mother's 

My couSisS^ (the son of 
my fatherm^ sjgter, or 
of mother's W^ 

My cousin, (a t< 
culiar to a 
which signifies : c 
sin of mine, 
daughter of my 
ther's sister, or of \ 
mother's brother.) 

My cousin (a term pecu- 
liar to a female, which 
signifies : cousin of 
mine, the daughter of 
my father's sister, or 
of my mother's bro- 
ther.) 

My brother-in-law, (a 
term peculiar to a 
male,which signifies : 
my wife's brother, 
my sister husband. 



A 



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— 23 



Nilem. 



Nadogw. 



Nilem. 



FUNCTIONS, 

Nasawan. 

MsinasaM^^g-a^.i 

KogoiwQ.wdgan. 

NsJkwhbiaowdgan. 

Chachapsolot(;d^o;^. 

l^olnmkwBOwdgan, 

ChigxxolQkwsowdgan. 

LiegusiSowdgan. 
, LsXdiaowdgan. 
VKelozow 6 gan» 



My sister-in-law, (a term 
peculiar to a male, 
which signifies : my 
brother's wife, my 
wife's sister. 

My brother-in-law, (a 
term peculiar to a 
female, which signi- 
fies : my husband's 
brother, my hue- 
band's sister. 

My sister-in-law,(a term 
peculiar to a female, 
which signifies : my 
sister's husband, my 
brother's wife. 

HABITS, Etc. 

The breathing. 

A sigh. 

A cry ; a scream. 

Sneezing. 

The hiccough, hiccup. 

Drowsiness. 

Snoring. 

A dream. 

The voice. 

Speech. 



1. In general, by suppressing the two sy\\a.h\es wo-gan^rom 
the substantives having that termination, as above, we have 
the indicat. pres. ^ pers. sing, of a verb ; as thus : msinasaf he 
(she) sighs ; kogdliva, he (she) crys ; akuamalso, he (she) is 
Mck. 






bvGoode 



-24 — 



Lsidakawdgan. 
yiligowd gan. 
Ma^igowSpran. 
Maskihlaidguau?dg*aw . 
M.Q,t6\?cwzotv6§^an. 
Stglenaol&owdgan. 



Gesture ; action. 
Beauty ; goodness. 
Ugliness ; malice. 
Pock-marks. 
Leanness, thinness. 
Health. 



SICKNESS, DISEASE. 



AkvLQmsilsoivdgan. 
Madamalsoz^dg'aw 
Mdwpineiwdgan. 
Obidogwogan, or obida- 

was. 
Wessagagzaze^dg* an. 
X.ezQhiow6gan. 
'i^dnbgij^ozoivdgan . 
Wjibilwas. 
Wan6damina^^;dg•a/^. 
Wesgninsitvdgan or wes- 

goinogan. 
Taakui neisenvSgan. 



Illness ; disease. 
Indisposition. 
Head-ache. 
Tooth- ache. 

Stomach 6r belly ache. 

Fever. 

Coldfits ; shivering. 

A fit. 

Hydrophobia, madness. 

A cold ; a cough. 
Short breath. 



PARTS OF THE BODY. 



Mhaga.^ 

Mdup. 

WdupkuanaZ. 



The body. 
The head. 
The hair-of the head. 



1, Whentv. r the adjective possessive n. k, or w, is to be 
prefixed to a noun expressing any part of the hody, commen- 
cing in m ; as, mhaga, mdup, mlawogan, this letter (m) must 
be suppressed before prefixing the possessive adjective ; as 
thus : nhaga, my body ; kdup, your head ; wlawogan, his (lier) 
heart. 



Digitized by 



Google 



25 — 



Msizukw. 


1 


The face ; eye. 


Mdon ; mejol. ' 




The month, the nose. 


Wanowaa/. 




The cheeks ; his, her — . 


Mdoppikan. 


5 


Chin. 


Wilalo. 


5 


The tongne, his, her — . 
The teeth, his, her—. 


Wibidal. 




Wkuedogan. 


5 


The neck ; his, her—. 


Mdolka. 


5 


The stomach. 


Mlawogan. 


6 


The heart. 


Mlagzi. 


5 


The belly. 


Mlagzia/. 




The bowels. 


Mdelmogan. 


1 


The shoulder. 


Wkeskonan. 


5 


The back ; his, her-*-. 


Moigan. 


5 


The loins, the reins. 


Mzabi. 


5 


The hip. 


Wpedin, ta wkod. 


5 


The arm and the leg. 


Melji ta mezid. 


5 


The hand and the foot 


Mkeskuan. 


5 


The elbow. 


Mkedukw. 


3 


The knee. 


MkazaAr. 




The nails. 


Wilidebon ta win. 




The brain and the mar- 


Pagakan. 




row. 
The blood. 


Wskan. 


4 


The bone. 


Kojoak. 




The veins. 


Wejata/. 




The nerves. 


Wiz6 wilahwdgan. 




The jaundice. 


Pzejilahwogan. 




A faintinff-fit ; a swoon 
The small-pox. 


Maskilbogan. 




Pazisilhawogan. 




The measles. 


Kiwanaskua Ihawogan. 


Giddiness. 


Maguizowogan. 




A swelling. 


Pmowa. 




A boil. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 26 — 


Wagsozow6gan. 


A cut (with a knife). 


Wagtahozowogan. 


A cut (with an axe). 


Majimal6milhaw6gan. 


Hooping cough. 


Mannach6gow6gan. 


Consumption. 


WEARING APPAREL. 


W6h6baks. 1 


A shirt. 


N6pkowan. 5 


The neck tie. 


Pten6ganaA:. 


The sleeves. 


Aal6mk6zik plejes. 


Drawers. 


Plejes. 5 


A pair of breeches, 




trousers. 


Ldbakhigana/. 


Suspenders. 


MedasaZ. 


Socks. 


Phanemi-medasaZ. 


Stockings. 


KiganobittZ. 


G-arters. 


PotsaZ. 


Boots. 


MkezenaZ. 


Shoes ; moccasins. 


Pitkozon ; silki— . 5 


A coat ; a silk gown. 


Kchi pitkozon. 5 


An overcoat. 


Silad. 5 


A waistcoaf ; a vest. 


PidoganaZ. 


The pockets. 


PatnesaZ. 


The buttons. 


Patnesolagol. 


The button-holes. 


Pitoguonsogan. 


The lining. 


Piguonsogan. 


The trimming. 


Ndbkoan. *J 


The collar. 


Kchi-paton. 6 


A cloak. 


Kwutguabizon 5 


A girdle ; a belt. 


Pilwontukw. 5 


A wig. 


Asolkwon. 5 


A hat. 


Moswa. 5 


A handkerchief. 


Aaliljomuk/A:. 


Gloves. 



Digitized by 



Google 



2t — 



Naskuahon. 


1 


A comb. 


Tbahikisosogan 


5 


A watch. 


O' nkawahlagiadigana/. 


The chain. 


Pkwessagahigan 


5 


The key. 


Sakhiljahon. 


5 


A ring (finger ring). 
A wedding-ring. 


Nibawiljahon. 


5 


CMgitwahigan. 


5 


A razor. 


Wsizugwaigana/. 




Spectacles. 


Nadialwalhakw. 


1 


A hunting-knife. 


Tmoknataigan. 


5 


A sword. 


O'badahon. 


5 


A cane ; a walking-stick, 


O'badahon. 


5 


A crutch. 


Labizowan. 


5 


A petticoat. 


Alomabizowan. 


5 


An under-petticoat. 


Tablia. 


5 


An apron. 


Phanemi-pitkozon. 


6 


A gown. 


Kchi-moswa. 


5 


A shawl. 


Pipinawjakwogan. 


5 


A looking-glass. 


PinsisaA:. 




Pins. 


Saksahon. 


5 


An ear-ring. 


Silki. 


5 


A ribbon. 


Mizowimoniinokwkil . 


Jewels. 


Phanemasolkwon. 


5 


A bonnet. 


Mskikoasolkwon. 


5 


A straw-hat. 


Wpedinobial. 




Bracelets. 


O'basawwan. 


1 


A fan. 


Ligndnsdgan. 
Kalizad. 


S 


A thimble. 


5 


Flannel. 


Momolagen. 


1 


Calico. 


Whawlatagak. 


6 


Fine cloth, woollen 
cloth. 


Silki. 


5 


Silk, satin, ribbon. 


AazataJfe. 


6 


Crape. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 28 — 



OF THE TABLE, MEALS AND DISHES 


Tawipodi. 


5 


A table. 1 


Wloganinok wkil . 




Table utensils ; plate. 


Papkuedanozik. 


6 


A sideboard. 


Tawipodiagen. 


5 


The tablecloth. 


Kasiljawwan. 


5 


A towel. 


Napkin. 


5 


A napkin. 


Anasiat. 


5 


A plate ; a cover. 


Nsakuakw. 


1 


A knife. 


Nimatguahigan. 


5 


A fork. 


Amkuon. 


1 


A spoon. 


Kchi wlogan. 


5 


A sonp-tnreen. 


Kwatsis. 


1 


A cup. 


Aazasit 


2 


A glass. 


Kchi aazasit. 


2 


A tumbler. 


Potoiia. 


1 


A bottle. 


Pinagel. 




Vinegar. 


Pinageli-kwatis. 


1 


The vinegar-cruet. 


Pemi. 




Oil ; grease. 


Pemii-kwatis. 


1 


The oil-cruet. 


Siwan. 




Salt. 


Siwani-kwatis. 




The salt-cellar. 


Whawizowjagak. 




Mustard. 


W hawizowjagaki-kwa- 


The mustard-pot. 


tis. 


1 




TipwabeL 




Pepper. 


Tipwabelinodasis. 




The pepper-box. 


Agomnoki-mosknas- 




Q-inger. 


waskw. 






Lamiskad. (fr. la mns- 


The nutmeg. 


cade.) 






Sogai. 




Sugar. 


Sogali kwat. 




The sugar-basin. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 2^ — 



O'mwaimlases. 

Mlases. 

Pkuazigan. 

Alipimek. 

Wsposipowogan. 

Kasilawahosowogan. 

Paskuaipow ogan . 

Adlogwipowogan. 

Ti. 

Kzobo. 

Nsobon. 

Lasob ; pizilasob. 

Wobi malomenisal. 

Taliozigan. 

Mkuejazigan. 

Lago. 

Segueskejakhigan. 

Kaoziia. 

Mkuejazigan kaoziia. 

Kaozisiia. 

Azibiia. 

Azibi-wpigasinol. 

Azibigan. 

WdollooAr. 

Kalkia azibiia. 

Piksiia 

Piksi-wpigasen. 

Wibalasigan. 

Podinak. 

Nolkaiia. 

Awaasiia or awaaswiia. 

Ahamoiia. 

Wulgnan. 



Honey. 

Molasses, 

Bread. 

A meal. 

Breakfast. 

The dessert ; a lunch. 

Dinner. 

Supper. 

Tea. 

Broth ; soup. 

Soup ; corn-soup. 

Soup ; pea-soup. 

Rice soup ; rice. 

Boiled meat. 

Roast meat. 

A stew. 

A fricassee ; a hash. 

Beef. 

Roast-beef. 

Veal. 

Mutton ; lamb. 

Mutton-chops. 

A leg of mutton. 

Kidneys. 

A quarter of lamb. 

Pork ; bacon. 

A pork-chop. ' 

Ham. 

Black pudding. 

Venison. 

G-ame. 

Poultry. 

A wing. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 80 — 



Namas ; namasiia. 


Fish ; some fish. 


Alsak, 


Oysters. 


Sogak. 


Lobsters. 


NahomoaA:. 


Eels. 


PadatesaA:. 


Potatoes. 


Kabij. 5 


A cabbage. 


Wowana/. 


Eggs. 
Boiled eggs. 


TaliodagtV wowanaZ. 


"Wski-wowanal or wsk- 


New laid eggs. 


owanaZ. 




Pata. 4 


A tart, a pie. 


Ahonak or abonisa/c. 


Cakes. 


KalakonaA;. 


Biscuits (sea biscuits.) 


Chiz. 


Cheeie. 


Wisowipemi, 


Butter. 


Minobo. 


Preserves, jam. 


PongoksaA. 


Pancakes. 


BEVEI 


lAaES. 


Nebi. 


Water. 


Nbisonbi. 


Mineral water. 


Labial. 


Beer ; ale. 


Labialsis. 


Small beer. 


Saidal. 


Cider. 


Makwbagak. 


Wine. 


Ngoni makwbagak. 


Old wine. 


Wski makwbagak. 


New wine. 


Wobi makwbagak. 


White wine. 


Plachmoni makwbabak 


French wine. 


Akwbi. 


Eum. 


Weski. 


Whiskey. 


Jin. 


ain. 


Blandi. 


Brandy. 


Kadosmoogana/. 


Liquors. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 31 — 



FRUIT AND FRUIT TREES. 



Aples. 


1 


An apple. 


Aplesakuam. 


1 


An apple-tree. 


Azawauimen. 


1 


A plum. 


Azawanimenakuam. 


1 


A plum-tree. 


Adbimen. 


5 


A cherry. 


Adbimenakuam. 


1 


A cherry-tree. 


Wasawas. 


5 


An orange. 


Mologowimena/. 




Q-rapes. 


SomenaA:. 




Raisins. 


Pagon ; pagonis. 


6 


A walnut ; a hazle nut 


SgueskimenaA:. 




Raspberries. 


SgneskiTYienimozi. 




A raspberry-bush. 


MskikoiminsaA:. 




Strawberries. 


PsakwdamenaA:. 




Mulberries. 


Adotomena/. 


1 


Beam-tree berries. 


Pessimena/. 




Currants. 


WajoimenaZ. 




Beech-nuts. 


Sata. 


8 


Blue-berry. 


Satamozi. 


5 


Blue-berry bush. 


PichesaA. 




Peaches. 


Kowakwix^en. 


1 


A gooseberry. 


Pagonisa/. 




Chestnuts ; filberts. 


Anaskemen. 


5 


An acorn. 


Popokua. 


8 


A cranberry. 


FOREST-TREES, FLOWERS, ETC. 


Anaskemezi. 


1 


An oak. 


Anibi. 


1 


An elm. 


Wawabibagw. 


3 


A poplar. 


Wajoimizi. 


1 


A beech. 


Mahlakws. 


1 


An ash. 


Senomozi. 


1 


A maple. 



Digitized by 



Google 



32 — 



Maskwamozi. 


1 


A birch. 


Wdopi. 


5 


An alder-tree. 


Kokokhoakw. 


8 


A fir-tree. 


Saskib. 


5 


An elder. 


Kanozas. 


1 


A willow. 


Molodagw. 


8 


A cedar. 


Wigbimizi. 


1 


Bass-wood. 


Chignazakuam. 
Moskwaswaskw. 


1 


A thorn-tree. 


1 


The sweet-flag. 


Maskwazimenakuam. 1 1 


A wild-cherry tree. 


Nibimenakuam. 


1 


A bush-cranberry tree. 


Alnisedi. 


1 


A hemlock. 


Sagaskodagw. 


3 


Ground-hemlock. 


Pasaakw. 


3 


A red pine. 


Msoakw. 


3 


A dry tree ; decayed 

wood. 
A stub, or a broken tree. 


Temanakw. 


1 


Papagakaiiilhok. 




Bloodroot. 


Ahadbak. 




Avensroot. 


Alncbai tipoabel. 




Wild ginger. 


Chijis. 


1 


Wild onion. 


Masozia/. 




Ferns. 


Skibo. 


4 


The ground-nut or In- 
dian potato. 


Asakuam. 




Moos. 


Wanibagw. 


1 


A leaf. 


Wlemskw. 


1 


A blossom. 


Wajapk. 


1 


A root. 


Kawasen. 


3 


A wind-fall. 


Walagaskw. 


3 


Bark. 


Maskwa. 


8 


Birch-bark. 


Pskaotkwen. 


1 


A branch. 


Wskidaknam. 




The sap. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— S3 — 



Alomakuam. 

Awazona/. 

Msazesso. 

Mskak. 

Pobnodageso. 

Sasogsek. 



The heart of a tree. 
Fuel, firewood. 
"White spruce. 
Black spruce. 
Tamarac. 
Sarsaparilla. 



MECHANICAL ARTS, Etc. 



Noji-kadobidaphowad 2 
Noji-paskhiganikat. 2 
Noji-tbakwnigad. 2 
Noji-chigetowawwat. 2 
Noji-aseswobikad. 2 
Nodbaadigat. 2 

Nodkwahid. 2 

Nodabonkad. 2 
Moni nojinademi wad. 2 

Nodonkolhod. 2 

Noji-pakhiminad 2 

Noji-monikad. 2 

Nodasolkwonkat. 2 

Nojikkad. 2 

Nodojiphowad. 2 

Nojiguonsad. 2 

Nojiguonsaskua. 4 

Nodagieowad. 2 

Nobatebit. 2 

Notkezenikad. 2 

Klosli. 1 

Nodalhagokad. 2 

Noji-papawijokad. 2 
Noji-pskwasaw6nkad.2 
3 



A dentist. 
A ffun-smith. 
A land surveyor. 
A barber. 
A harness-maker. 
A washer- woman. 
A woodman, wood cut- 
ter. 
A baker. 

A banker ; a broker. 
A merchant. 
A thresher. 
A jeweller. 
A hatter. 

A carpenter ; joiner. 
A carter ; carman. 
A seamster ; tailor. 
A seamster. 
A tailor. 
A cook. 
A shoemaker. 
A grocer. 
A blackstuith. 
A tinsmith. 
A florist. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 84 



Noji-tbaikisosoganikad 2 

Mahowad. 2 

Mahowadiskwa. 4 

Soghebat. 2 

Noji-alnalhakwawighi- 

gad. 2 

Notkazowad. 2 

Noji-kawakwnigad. 2 

Nodapskenigad. 2 

Nodapskaigad 2 

Nottahasid. 2 

Noji-nbizonhowad. 2 

Nadazoonigad. 2 

Noji-wizowimonikad. 2 

Nodomad. 2 

Noji-sezowigad. 2 

Nodatsigad. 8 

Noji-abaznodakad. 2 

Noji-tbelodmowinno. 1 

Nodawigbigad. 2 

Noji-soglitigad. 2 

Noji-moniad. 2 

Nodobaktabigad. 2 

Noji-pakbolid. 2 

Notkikad. 2 

Nadialwinno. 1 

Notknaag. 2 



A watcb-maker. 

A landlord. 

A landlady. 

An inn-keeper ; botel- 

keeper. 
A printer. 

A plough-man. 

A reaper. 

A mason. 

A stone-cutter. 

A miller. 

A physician, a doctor. 

A horse-dealer. 

A gold-smith. 

A fisherman. 

A painter. 

A tanner, a dyer, 

A basket-maker. 

An advocate, a barrister 

A notary public. 

A registrar. 

A treasurer. 

A fidler. 

A drummer, 

A sower ; a tiller. 

A hunter. 

A pilot. 



OF THE SEA. 



Sobagw. Y 

Mani menahanikak. 6 
Menahan. 7 



The ocean ; the sea. 
An archipelago ; at the. 
An island. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 36 



Menahanakamigw. 7 
Senodkamigwa, seno- 

jiwi. 
Pamkaak. 

Wisawogamak. 6 

Tegoak. 
Awiben. 
Pitah. 

Pamapskak. 6 

Mamilahomak. 6 

O'dawomkak. 6 

Kzelomsen. 
Petguelomsen. 
Kokw. 1 



A peninsula. 
The shore. 

The coast. 
A strait. 
The waves. 

A calm ; it is . 

The foam ; the froth. 

A rock. 

A promontory. 

A sand bank. 

The wind ; — ^blows. 

A whirlwind. 

A whirlpool. 



DOMESTIC ANIMALS,WILD QUADRUPEDS, 
BIRDS, FURS AND SKINS. 



Ases, aaso. 1 

N'-d-aasom, 1 

Kaoz ; ( awa.) 1 

Wski asesis. 1 

Aksen. 1 

Kaozis. 1 

Sponioli ases. 1 

Azib ; ( awa) 1 

Azibis. 1 

Kots ; kotsis. 1 

Minowis, pezois. 1 

Alemos, adia. 1 

Wski alemos. 1 

(N-d-amis, 1 
Piges, piks ; pikaaJc 

Pitolo. 1 



A horse. 
My horse. 

A cow ; (a hide.) 

A colt ; a filly. 
An ox. 

A calf ; a heifer. 
A mule ; an ass. 

A sheep ; (a skin.) 

A lamb. 

A goat ; a kid. 

A cat. 

A dog. 

A young dog. 

My dog. 

A pig ; pigs. 

A lion. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 86 — 



Molsem ; (—is.) 3 

Wokwses. 1 

Pakesso. 1 

Mategnas. 1 

Mikowa. 1 

Wobikwsos. 1 

Tmakwa ; (— awa.) 4 
(Tmakwaiia, 
Moskuas ; ( — wawa.) 

Wnegigw. 1 

"Wlanigw ; ( — sis.) 1 

Mosbas. 1 

Apanakes. 1 

Psanigw. ' 1 

Planigw. 1 

Moz ; (— agen; — ia.) 1 

Magolibo ; ( — awa.) 1 
Nolka ; ( — iia.) 4 

Kogw ; ( — is.) 1 

Sa^nasis. 1 

Akigw ; ( — awa.) 1 
Akigwawaiia. 
Segogw. 1 

Awasos. 1 

Pziko ; (— makwsessis.) 

Pziko aioba. (pi. — ak 

-k.) 

Pziko allha. ^ (pi.— ak 

_-k.) 

* Spell : al'lha ; 



A wolf ; (a yonng — .) 

A fox. 

A partridge. 

A hare ; a rabbit. 

A squirrel. 

A mouse. 

A beaver ; ( — skin) 

Beaver meat.) 

A muskrat ; ( — skin.) 

An otter. 

A fisher ; (a young — .) 

A mink. 

A marten, sable. 

A black squirrel. 

A flying squirrel. 

Moose ; ( — skin ; — 

meat.; 
A carribou ; (a — skin.) 
A deer ; (venison.) 
A porcupine, (a young 

A weasel. 

A seal (a — skin.) 

Of seal-skin. 

A skunk. 

A bear. 

A buffalo ; (a yearling 

— ) 

A male buffalo, a bull. 
A female buffalo. 



Digitized by 



Google 



-SI 



Pziko kadnadokw. 1 
Wdosoallha peziko. 
Anikwses. 1 

Asban* 1 

Agaskw. 3 

Sips ; sibsis. • 1 

Sips nobalha ^ (pi. — 
• ak— k.) 
Sips skualha ^ (pi. — 

ak— k.) 
Mgeso ; mgesois. 1 
Kokokhas ; waloias. 1 
O'basas. 1 

Kwiguigum. 8 

Mama. 4 

Madagenilhas. 
' Wisowihlasis. 1 

Cheskwadadas. 1 

Sasaso. 1 

Siomo. 

Sasasois, (pron : — wis). 1 

Kwikueskas. 1 

Kejegigilhasis, (spe/Z : — 

Iha-sis). 1 

Chimeliilhasis. 1 

Mkazas; kchimkazas. 1 
Kaskaljas or Kaskalja- 

sis. 1 

Kaakw ; Kaakwis. 3,1 



A two year old buflfalo. 

A three year old buffalo. 

A " striped squirrel.'* 

A racoon. 

A woodchuck. 

A bird ; a little bird. 

A male bird. 

A female bird. 

An eagle ; an eaglet. 

An owl. 

A woodpecker. 

A black duck. 

A black woodpecker. 

A bat. 

A wizard, (or any other 
kind of yellow bird.) 

A king-fisher. 

A plover. 

A bird of prey. 

A small species of plo- 
ver. 

A robin. 

A chickadee. 

A chimney swallow. 
A crow ; raven. 
A song-sparrow. 

A gull ; a small grey 
gull. 



* Spell : no'ha-lha ; skua-lha 



Digitized by 



Google 



38 — 



Wlogowilhas. 




A nightingale. 


Pokui sigosknasis. 




The wheat-eal^ 


Ahamo ; ahamois. 


1 


A hen ; chicken. 


Nobalha. 


4 


A cock ; a male bird 


Wobigilhakw. 


8 


A goose. 


Nahama. 


4 


A turkey. 


Polobai-sibes, (plur 


. — 


A peacock. 


sipsak). 






Mdawilha ; — sis. 


44 


A loon ; a young — . 


Alonteguilha, (spell 




A wood duck. 


Iha). 


4 




Nanatasis. 


1 


A humming bird. 


Sobagwilha. 


4 


A sea duck. 


Nbesi-chogleskw. 


3 


A bobolink. 


Chogleskw. 


3 


A cow-bunting. 


Pnegokihlasis. 


1 


A bank swallow. 


Tidesso. 


1 


A blue jay. 


Wobtegua. 


4 


A wild-goose. 


Pelaz. 


1 


A wild pigeon. 


Wobipelaz. 


1 


A pigeon, (tame — .) 


Pakesso. 


1 


A partridge. 


Seguanilha,'* (spell 


: — 


A smiter-hawk. '^ 


Iha). 


4 




Soglonilhasis. 


1 


A swallow. 


"Wigualha. 


4 


A swan. 


Pokhamenes. 




A bittern. 


Kasko. 




A heron. 


Alomsaguilhasis. 




A whin chat. 


Papoles. 




A whip-poor-will. 



* A bird that kills its prey willi a blow with its breast bono. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 39 — 
FISHES, REPTILES AND INSECTS. 



Namas. 


1 


A fish. 


£abasa. 


4 


A sturgeon. 


Nokamagw. 


3 


A cod. 


Makelo. 


1 


A mackerel. 


Tolba. 


4 


A turtle. 


S6ga. 


4 


A lobster. 


AlsaA;. 




Oysters ; shells.. 


Mskuamagw. ~ 


3 


A salmon. 


Kwenoza. 


4 


A pike. 


Wobhagas. 


1 


A carp. 


Eikomkwa. 


4 


A sucker. 


Namagw. 


3 


A salmon trout. 


Nahomo. 


1 


An eel. 


Wobi namas or 


woba- 


A white fish. 


magw. 


1 




Watagua. 


4 


A pickerel. 


Molazigan. 


1 


A bass. 


Skog. 


1 


A serpent ; a snake. 


Chegual. 1 
Maska or mamaska. 4 


A frog, 
A toad. 


Kakadologw. 


1 


A lizard. 


Pabaskw. 


3 


A leech, a bloodsucker 


Msaskos:. 


1 


A Boa. 


Skoks. 


] 


A worm. 


Sisikwa. 


4 


A rattle snake. 


Mamselabika. 


4 


A spider. 


Sigiliamo. 


1 


A locust. 


Chols. 


4 


A cricket. 


Maskejamogwses 


1 


A bug. 


Pabigw. 


1 


A flea. 


Alikws. 


1 


An ant, a pismire. 



Digitized by 



Google 



-40 — 



Kemo. 


4 


A louse. 


Mamijola. 


4 


A butterfly. 


"Wawilomwa. 


4 


A bee ; a wasp. 


Kchi wawilomwa. 




A drone. 


Wjawas. 


1 


A fly. 


Massakua. 


4 


A horse-fly. 


Pegues. 


1 


A mosquito. ' 


OF THE COUNTRY AND THE OBJECTS 


MET WITH. 


Odana. 


6 


A town ; a city ; a vil- 
lage. 


O'wdi. 


5 


A road ; a street. 


O'wdesis. 


6 


A path. 


Ki ; aki. 


6 


An estate ; a farm ; laud 


Wigwom, (gamigw) 




A house. 


Negoni garaigw. 




An old house. 


Kinjamesigamigw. 


^7 


A castle ; a palace. 


Aiamihawigamigw. 


^7 


A church ^ 


Tagnahogan. 


6 


A mill. 


Pessakuogan. 


6 


A saw-mill. 


Kaozigamigw. 


^7 


A stable. 


Kchikaozigamigw. 


7 


A bam. 


Soghebaigamigw. 


7 


An inn, a tavern. 


Psakaigan. 
Pmelodigan. 


6 


A ditch. 


6 


A fence. 


Pmelodiganakuama/ 




Fence rails. 


SkahoganaA:. 




Pickets. 


Sibo, tegw, ttegw. 


1 


A river. 


Sibos ; sibosis. 


5 


A brook ; a little brook 


Kpiwi. 




A forest ; in the — . 


Pami pizagak. 




The bush ; in the—. 


Nbizonkikon. 


6 


A garden. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 41 



Kikon. 5 

Maji ki or mamadaki 5 

Wli ki. 5 
Kawakwnigawogan. 
Mskagw. 

Tebeskahigan. 5 
Nodahlagokaigami gw*? 
Azibaft. 
NidazoaA:. 

Kanal. 5 

Alnahlagwowdi. 5 

Lessaguogan. 5 

Notch6gu84gainigw. 7 

Kbahodwigamigw. 7 

Kaas. 5 
Kdakinna. 



poor — . 



A field. 

A barren land ; 

A fertile land. 

The harvest. 

A marsh. 

A hay-stack. 

A forge. 

A flock of sheep ; sheep. 

A herd of cattle ; cattle ; 

animals. 
A canal. 
A railway. 
A bridge. 
An hospital. 
A prison, a jail. 
A car. 
The globe. 



MONEY AND COINS. 



Moni. 

Sakwskigek. 

Pilaskwi-moni. 

Wizowi-moni. 

Somalkin. 

Sans. 

Mdalasis. 

Mdala sansak. 

Pinso. 

Silon. 

Tlotso, or nisinska taba 

nolan sansak. 
Pazeko moni. 
Psrzeko lowi. 



Money ; silver. 

Change. 

A bank-note. 

Gold ; a gold coin. 

Halfpenny. 

One cent. 

A dime (10 cts.) 

Ten cents. 

A franc (10 pence.) 

A shilling (20 cts.) 

Twenty-five cents. 

One dollar. 
A pound. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 42 — 



WEKiHTS AND MEASURES. 



Mdala lowiak. 

Nguoji tkwignan. 

Pabasi tkwignan. 

Kaltlo. 

Awens. 

Minot. 

Temiminot. 

Minot taba pabasiwi. 

Ngnet'gulanoo. 

Md^la Kas'galanoo. 

Pabas'galanoo. 

Ngnet'kwatoo. 

Fabasba. 
Ngnet'akwnoso or pa- 

zegneda Uakwnoso. 
Pabasi Uakwnoso. 
Ngnejipia taba paha- 

siwi. 
Ngnet' ak wiadogan . 
Mail, (pron : ma-il.) 
Ngnet' osomgnat. 
Ngnet' osomgnat tmes- 

kniwi. 
Alpon ki. 



Ten ponnds (<£10.) 

Aponnd. 

Hsdf a ponnd. 

Qnarter of a pound. 

An onnce. 

A bnshel (8 gallcms.) 

Half a bnshel. 

A bnshel and half. 

A gallon. 

Ten gallons. 

Half a gallon. 

A qnart (a qnarter of a 

gallon.) 
A pint. 
One yard. 



Half a yard. 
A foot and j 



half. 



An inch. 

A mile. 

A leagne. 

A sqnare leagne. 

An acre of land. 



CORN AND VEOETABLES. 



Malomena/. 
Asesowimena/. 
Nagakowimeno/. 
Tlotsa/. 



Wheat. 
Oats. 
Rye. 
Barley. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 43 — 



Skamono/. 




Indian corn. 


Wajabko/. 




Roots. 


MskikooZ. 




Hay. 


Mskikoisa/. 




Herbs. 


AtebakwaZ or 


tebakua/. 


Beans. 


OhannapsaA:. 




Turnips. 


Kabij. 


5 


A cabbage. 


Timeno. 


6 


A melon. 


Askitameg. 


6 


A cucumber 


Winos. 


1 


An onion. 


Winosisa*. 


, 


Shallots. 



FARMINa IMPLEMENTS, CARRIAGES, 
HARNESS, &c., &c. 



Lakazowogan. 5 

Lakazowawogan. 
Nokapodigan. 5 

N'-d-elkaz6w6gan. 
N'nokapodigan. 
Nokapodiga wogan . 
N'nokapodiga. 
N'-d-elkazowa. 
Lakaigan. 5 

Temaskezowogan. 
N'temskezowogan . 
N'temskezowa. 
Temaskezowa. 
Wolkogan. 5 

MagdlMgan. " ^ 1 
MsMkoi - nimategoai - 
ffan. 5 

Aaiobidaak. 5 



A plough. 

Ploughing, act of—. 

A harrow. 

My plough. 

My harrow. 

Harrowing, act of— 

I harrow. 

I plough. 

A hoe. 

Scythe. 

My scythe. 

I mow. 

He mows. 

A shovel. 

A wooden shovel. 

A hay-fork. 

A rake. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 44 



Wagin. 

Wakolikws. 

Aseswobial. 

Fihanisak. 

Nobalobi. 

Sazamhigan. 

Tawabodi. 

Wawabigodhigan. 



A waggon. 
A wheel ; 
A harness. 
The reins. 
A bridle. 
A whip. 
A saddle. 
A sleigh. 



a cart. 



COLOURS, PAINTINa, WRITINa 
IMPLEMENTS, &c. 



Mkui... (in the compo- 
sition). 
Mknigen. pi. ol 

Mkuigo. ** ak 

Mkui sezowigan. 
Sezowigan. ** al 

Mkui sezowozo. 
Atsigan. " al 

Mku'atsigan. 
N'-d-atsiga. 
N'moku'atsiga. 
N'-d-atso. 
N'-d-atsemen. 
N'-d-atsemenana. 
K'-d-atsemenana. 
Wlowi... 
Wlow'atsigan. 
Wlowigo. 
Wlowigen. 
Wlowi sezowigan. 
Mkuobamegua. 



Ited. 

It is red. 

He, she, it, is red. 

Red paint. 

Paint. 

He, she, it, is painted red 

Dye. 

Red dye. 

I dye. 

I dye red. 

I dye him, her, (it). 

I dye it. 

"We dye it. 

"We dye it. 

Blue. 

Blue dye. 

He, she, it, is blue. 

It is blue. 

Blue paint. 

Reddish. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 45 



Wlowobamegua. 

Wizowi... 

Wizowi kezabezowo- 

gan. 
Wizow'atsigan. 
Wizowigen. 
Askaskui... 
Askaskui sezowigau. 
Askasku' atsigan. 
"W-d-askaku'ateemen. 
-Wohi... 
Wobigen. 
Wobigo. 
Wobi gamigw. 
. Wobipegw. 
Mkazawi... 
Mkazawigen. 

Mkazawigo. 

Wobigek. 

Makazawigek. 

"Wobbagak. 

Makazawbagak. 

Wobbaga. 

Mkazawbaga. 
- Awighig8(nebi, 

N'-d-awighiganebim 
wlowbaga. 

N'pilaskom wobigen. 

N'miguenom wobigo. 

Miguen. 

Wdamoobamegua. 

Minobowigen. 

Minobowigek. 



Bluish. 
Yellow. 
Yellow fever. 

Yellow dye. 

It is yellow. 

Grreen. 

Grreen paint. 

Green dye. 

He, she, dyes it green. 

White. 

It is white. 

He, she, it, is white. 

A white house. 

Lime. 

Black. 

It is black. 

He, she, it, is black ; 

The white. 

The black. 

The white, (liquid). 

The black, (liq[uid). 

It is white, (liquid). 

It is black, (liquid). 

Some ink. 

My ink is blue. 

My paper is white. 

My pen is white. 

A pen, a quill ; a feather 

It is brown. 

It is violet. 

The violet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 46 — 



Wibgui.,. 
Wibguigen. 
Wibguigo. 
W-d-asolkw6n wibe- 

gtugen. 
Wibgnigek asolkwon. ^ 
Wibgnig-o n'-d-aasom. 
Wibguigoa w'-d-asoma. 
Sen or asen. 



Grrey ; drab. 

It is grey. 

He, she, it, is grey. 

His (her) hat is grey. 

A Of the grey hat. 
My horse is grey. 
His (her) horse is grey. 
A slate ; a stone. 



CARDINAL POINTS, &c. 



Sowanaki ) 
Ali-paskuat > 
Nibenaki ) 
Sowanakik j 
Nibenakik > 
Ali-paskaat ) 
Sowanessen. 

Pebonki. 
Pebonkik. 

Pebonkiak. 

Waji-nahilot \ 

Waji-sokhipozit ) 

Sobhoban. 

Kirzoban. 

Kizobak. 

Wobanaki or O'banaki. 



The South. 

Southward, at, to, from 
the South. 

South wind, the wind 
comes from the South. 

The North. 

Northward at, to, from 
the North. 

Northern people. 

The East ; at, to, from 
the East. 

Day break. 

It is day light. 

At day light. 

Land of the East. 



1. We say also : ivibgu'asolkwdn. 



Digitized by 



Google 



-i1- 



Wobanakiak. {stngulur^ 
Wobanati.) 

- Ali-nkihl6t. 

Ali-nkihlot weji pmow- 

zowinnoak. 
^ Nibenakiak, {singular^ 

nibenaki.) 
Nsawiwi ali-paskuat ta 

ali-nkihlot. 
Nsawiwi pebonkik ta 

waji-nahilot. 
Nsawiwi waji-nahilot 

ta ali-paskuat. 
Nsawiwi pebonkik ta 

ali-nkihlot. 



The people (Indians) 
from where the son 

• rises. 

The West, westward ; 
at, to, from the west. 

The western people. 

The southern people. 

South-west ; at, to, from 

the south-west. 
North-East ; at, to, from 

the north-east. 
South-east ; at, to, from 

the south-east. 
North-west ; at, to, from 

the north-west. 



HUNTING AND FISHING IMPLEMENTS, &c. 



Paskhigan. 5 

Adebolaffw. ^7 

Nahnisakwtag. 6 
Papkwesbalog paski - 

gan. 
PapkweskalogiY paskhi- 

ganaZ. 

Alomsawaiias. 5 

Saguolhigan. 5 

Asenapanes. 1 

Alemos. 1 

Tobi. 1 

Nhanesnosik. 6 



A gun. 

A rifle. 

A double-barreled gun. 

A breech-loader. 

Breech-loaders. 

A pistol ; a revolver. 

A ramrod. 

The lock. 

The cock ; the hammer. 

A spring ; a bow. 

The trigger. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 48'^ 



Peza. 

Ssusalhogil (sissalhogil). 

Mamsag. 6 

Telaps. 1 

Klahigan. 5 

N'telapsem. 1 
N*kelhigan. 

Kap or Kapsis. 6 

Pidapskuiganinoda. 5 

Askan. 1 

Nadialowinno. 1 
Nadialoi ki. 

Pisowakamigw. ^ 

Pisowakamigwinno. 1 

Nadialowogan. 
O'mawogan. 
Chawapenigan or chaw- 

penigan. 
Chawapeniganatagw. 7 
Chawapeniganakuam .6 
Nodamaguongan. 1 
Awogan. 

Lhab or ahlab. 1 

N-d-ahlabem, — ak. 
K*-d-ahlabem. 
W-d-ahlbema. 
N'-dahlabemna ; — wak 
K'-d-ahlabemna. 
W*-d-ahlabemow6. 



The powder. 

Shot. 

A ball, a bullet. 

A steel-trap. 

A wooden-trap. 

My steel-trap. 

My wooden-trap. 

A percussion-cap, a cap. 

The shot-belt. 

A powder-horn ; a horn. 

A hunter ; a sportsman. 

Hunting ground. 

The wilderness. 

An uncivilized man or 

person. 
Hunting. 
Pishing. 
A fish-hook. 

A fishing-line. 

A fishing-rod. 

A fishspear. 

The bait. 

A net. 

My net — nets. 

Your (thy) net. 

His (her) net, or nets. 

Our net— nets. 

Our net. 

Their net, or nets. 



Digitized by 



Google 



49 



ECCLESIASTICAL AND SECULAR 
DIGNITIES. 



Kchi Sogmowi-Patli- 

hoz. 1 

Sogmowi patlihoz. 1 

KcM patlihoz. 1 

Patlihoz. 1 

Manistel. 1 

Kinomasowinno. 1 

Patlihoskna. 4 

-^Kinjames. 1 

Kinjamesiskua. 4 

Kinjamessis. 1 

Kinjamessisknasis. 1 

"^Saniol ; — iskua. 

Kchisogmoi li d e b e z o- 

winno. 
Kchi sogmo ; — skua. 
Sogmo ;— skua. 

Kaptin. 1 

Kolnal. 1 
Pastoni-Kchi Soffmo. 



The Pope,the Sovereign 

Pontiff. 
A Bishop. 
A parish priest, a high- 

priest. 
A priest. 
A minister. 
A preacher. 
A nun. 
A king. 
A queen. . 
A prince. 
A princess. 
A lord ; a lady. 
A minister of state. 

A governor ; the-'s wife. 
A chief ; chiefs wife. 
A captain. 
A colonel. 

The President of the U.- 
S. of America. 



GAMES, KECEEATIONS, &c. 



Pemegawogan, 
N'pemegQ. 
Pemega. 
Pemegawinno. 
Alogmapozimuk. 
4 



Dancing. 

I dance. 

He (she) dances. 

A dancer. 

To skate. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 50 



K*-d-alogmapozi. 

Logmapoza. 

Logmapozowinno. 1 

LogmapozowanaA:. 

TelapaA:, 

Negueji chebezoak tela- 

paA:. 
Naguedawighosit. 2 
Sogmo. 4 

Awanochwi-skuaso. 1 
Wsemoganes. 1 

Nises or nis. 1 

Awskatastigamuk. 
Nadonomuk. 
N'nadono. 
Nadona. 
AgisowanaA:. 
Pabaskwhamawogan. 
Pabaskhamogan. 1 

N'telaphamo. 
N'pabaskwhamo. 
Pabaskwhama. 
Pabasbwhamak. 
Lobaktaigan ; tobi. 5 
Piguongan. 5 

Paiholigan. 1 

Kchi-lobaktaigan. 6 
Lintowogan. 5 



Thou art skating. 

He (she) is skating. 

A skater. 

Skates. 

Cards. 

A pack of cards. 

The ace. 

The king. 

The queen. 

The knave. 

The deuce. 

To shuffle. 

To cut. 

I cut. 

He (she) cuts. 

Counters. 

Playing-ball or play-ball 

A ball. 

I play at card. 

I play at ball. 

He (she) plays at ball. 

They play at ball. 

A fiddle ; a bow. 

A flute ; a fife. 

A drum. 

A piano ; an organ. 

A song. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 51 — 



NAMES OF CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, 

RIVERS, COUNTRIES, NATIONS, 

&c., &c. 



Molian. 

Moliaui. 

MoliniaA:. 

Moliantegw. 

Masessolian. 

MasessolianiaA:. 

Masessoliantegw. 

Madob^lodnik. 

MadobalodniaA:. 

Madobalodnitegw. 

Palkinek. 

PalkiniaA:. 

Pithiganek. 
PithiganiaA. 

Pithiganitegw. 

Wolinak. 

Welinaktegw. 

Padiskonek. 

O'bamasek. 

O'bamasisek. 

Pamadenainak. 

Pamad^iaiaA:. 



Montreal. 

A Montrealer. 

Montrealers. 

River St-Lawrence. 

Sorel. 

Sorellers. 

River Chambly. 

Three-Rivers. 

People or inhabitants 

of Three-Rivers. 
River St-Maurice. 
Berthier. 
Peop. or inhabitants of 

Berthier. 
Nicolet. 
Peop. or inhabitants of 

Nicolet. 
River Nieolet. . 
Becancour. 
River Becanconr. 
Batiscan. 
Riviere du Loup (en 

bas.) 
Yamachiche. 
Lorette (Ind. Village.) 
Indians of Lorette. 



Digitized by 



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— 52 



Kebek, M 
Kubek. 2 J 


Quebec. 


Kubeki. 


A citizen (man) of Que- 




bec. 


Kuibekiak. 


Peop. or inhabitants of 




Quebec. 


Kuibekiskua. 


A lady (woman) from 




Quebec. 


Kuibekiskuak. 


Ladies of Quebec. 


Kaanawagi. 


Caughnawaga. 


Magna. 


An Iroquois (indian). 


Kaanawagihnono. 


The iroquois tribe. 


Otawa. 


Ottawa, 


Otawai. 


A man (citizen) from 




Ottawa. 


Otawaiiak. 


People or inhabitants 




of Ottawa. 


Koattegw. 


Pine Eiver. 


Koattegok. 


Ooaticook. 


Mamlawbagak. 


Mamphremagog. 


Modowa. 


Mantawa. 


Paliten. 


Burlington. 


Son-Halonek. 


Plattsburg. 


Salatogi. 


Saratoga. 


Nebizonbik. 


At the mineral spring. 


Kwenitegw. 


River Connecticut. 


Winoski. 


Winooski. 


Pasomsik. 


Passumpsic. 


Pamijoasik. 


Pamigewasset. 


Wiwninbesaki. 


Winnipisaukee. 



1. Pronounce '* Ke-bek '• as in French, Quebec, 

2. This orlhograghy is an imitation of the English pronoun- 
elation. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 53 — 



Wawobadenik. 

Wigwomadensisek. 

Wigwomadenik. 

Kwanahomoik. 

Namakottik. 

Panaobskak. 

Panaobskattegw or Pa- 

naobskai sibo. 
Panaobskaiiak. 

Kanada. 
Pastonki. 

Pastonkik. 

Pastoni. 

Pastoniskua. 

Iglismonki. 

Iglismonkik. 

Iglismon. 

Tglesmoniskua. 

Plachmonki. 

Plachmon. 

Alemonki. 

Alemon. 

Sponiolki. 

Sponiol. 

lUodaki. (pron-dk.-ki) 

lUoda. 

Illodaskaa. 

Koswaki. (prow -ak-ki.) 

Koswa. 



White mountain reg. 

St Hyacinthe. 

Yamaska. 

Durham. 

Megantic. 

Penobscot. 

Penobscot river. 

People (indians) of Pe- 
nobscot. 

Canada. 

United States of Ame- 
rica. 

In the United States of 
America. 

An American. 

An American woman. 

England. 

In England. 

An Englishman. 

An English woman. 

France. 

A Frenchman. 

Germany. 

A German. 

Spain. 

A Spaniard. 

Ireland. 

An Irishman. 

An Irish woman. 

Scotland. 

if^cotchman. 



Digitized by 



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— 54 



Agomeneki. — {pron ak. 


Europe. 


-ki.) 




"Wdagomenoki. (p/.-ak.) 


An European. 


Alsig6ntegw.(/oca/ term: 


River St. Francis. 


Alsigontegok.) 




Alnoba. 


An Indian. 


Alnobai phanem. 


An Indian woman. 


"Wobanaki. 


An Abenaki (indian.) 


Sigwnigan. 


A reserve. 


Alnobai sigwnigan. 


An indian reserve. 


Alnobai lowozo^ogan 


Indian costume. 


or Alnobawozowo- 




gan. 
Alnoba'odana. 


An Indian village. 


Plachmoni odana. 


A French village. 


Odana. 


A city ; town ; village. 


Ki, aki. 


Earth, the globe, the 




world ; country ; 




farm ; ground ; soil. 


N'-d-aki, w'-d-aki. 


My farm, his (her) farm. 


Edakinna. 


The globe, (literally, our 




earth, our globe.) 


K'-d-akinna. 


Our farm or ground. 



NAMES OF PBESONS WHICH DIFFER 

FROM BOTH, THE ENG-LISH AND 

FRENCH ORTHOGRAPHY. 



Sozap. 


Joseph. 


Pial. 


Peter. 


Tanial, 


Daniel. 


Az6. 


John. 


Ogistin. 


Augustus 



Digitized by 



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— 66 — 



Nikola. 

Tabid. 

Plasoa. 

Atian. 

Sazal. 

Lazal. 

Tomo. 

O'bloas. 

Atoan. 

Paslid. 

Pelnal. 

Edoal. 

Klegual. 

Islal. 

Salom. 

Missal. 

Lpbal. 

Simo. 

Lola 

Agat. 

O'zalik. 

O'nis. 

Sallot. 

Klistin. 

O'nias. 

MaU. 

KlaUs. 

Amelain. 

Alizobat. 

Alan. 

Lowiz. 

Sopi. 

Tploti. 



Nicholas. 

David. 

Francis. 

Stephen. 

Caesar. 

Elijah. 

Thomas. 

Ambrose. 

Anthony. 

Basil. 

Bernard. 

Edward. 

Grregory. 

Israel. 

Jerome. 

Michael. 

Robert. 

Simon. 

Lawrence. 

Agatha. 

Angelica. 

Anna. 

Charlotte. 

Christiana. 

Agnes. 

Mary. 

Clarissa. 

Emeline. 

Elizabeth. 

Ellen. 

Louisa/ 

Sophia. 

Dorothy. 



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— 66 — 



Sessil. 

Katetin. 

Sozon. 

Malgelit. 

Talaz. 



Cicely. 

Catherine. 

Susan. 

Margaret. 

Theresa. 



HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS. 



Alamikowadimuk. 
Kinjamesak. 
Wasanmomnk. 
Pegnihodin. 
Sogmowi Mali Knasi- 

homnk. 
Sediak kalnomnk. 
O'bijibad. 
Spemkik alihlod. 
Pamosaiamihomnk. 
Skweda paskhozik. 

Pialak Knasihomnk. 
Sogmowi Missal Kna- 

sihomuk, 
Pobatamawawdimuk. 
Niboiamihomnk. 
Mowsedowadoi kisokw 
Tebalmezoi kisokw. 
Kinjamesiskna w'kis- 

kom. . 
OHkagobadasi kisokw. 



New-year's day. 
Epiphany-Twelfth day 
Candlemas. 
Ash-Wednesday. 
Lady day. 

Palm Sunday. 
Easter Sunday. 
Ascension day. 
Corpus Christi day. 
St. John-Baptist — Mid- 
summer day. 
St. Peter and St. Paul. 
Michaelmas day. 

All Saints. 
Christmas. 
Dominion day. 
Independence day. 
Queen's birth-day, (UL 

Queen's day.) 
Arbour day. 



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SUBSTANTIVES HAVINa NO SINaULAR.' 



Abasandoganal. 

Aiamiho^anal. 

O'nkawalagiadiganal. 

Aseswobial. 

Pihanisak. 

Senomkol or senomkui- 



Anrore borealis, 

them lights. 
Beads, chaplet. 
A chain. 
A harness. 
Beins. 
Gravel. 



Nor- 



As the Abenakis language has certain pecu- 
liarities which are not to be found in the 
English respecting the plural in pronouns^ 
and that the use of those pronouns is to occur 
very often in the Second Part of this book, 
for the right distinction of their signification, 
I thought it convenient to give that part 
of speech before I close the First Part, not- 
withstanding that this be not the ordinary 
sequel of a Vocabulary. The next pages will 
therefore show you that part. 



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— 58 — 
THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

1. NOMINATIVE FORM. 



Singular. 

IK,' I. 

2JSr,'thou. 
3 TT, ' he, she. 



Plural 

1 iV,' 1, we, (exclusive.) 

1 K,^ ^y we ; {inclusive.) 

2 iT,' you ; 

3 Tr,'they. 



2. OBJECTIVE FORM. 



Singular. 

1 Nia, me, (I ;) 

2 Kia^ thee, (thou ;) 

3 A^ma, him, her,(she ;) 



Plural. 

1 Niuna, us, to us, (we ;) 

1 Kiuna, us, to us, (we ;) 

2 Kiuwd, you, to you. 

3 Agmdtvdy them, to 
them, (they). 



1. Mind this well. N,' niuna, or niunilia, is employed, when 
those that speak do not include in their number the person 
or persons to whom they speak : n'milsihma, we eat, (we that 
speak, not the person or persons whom we speak to,) 

2. K is used, when those that speak include in their number 
the person or persons to whom they speak : A" pazdbibenat 
we see. (we that speak, and the person or persons to whom 
we speak.) And likewise Kiunat Kiunaila, us, we, ourselves, 
that is, we altogether, those that speak, and those that are 
spoken to. 



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— 69 — 

3. EEFLECTIVE FORM. 



Singular, 

1 NiatlUy myself ; 

2 Kiatla, thyself; 

3 Agmailay himself, her- 
self ; . 



Plural. 

1 Niunatta, ourselves, 
to — ; (excl.) 

1 Kiunattay ourselves, 
to — ; (incl.) 

2 Kiuwdlla, yourselves, 
to-; 

8 AgmdiadUaj themsel- 
ves, to — ; 



THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



Singular. 

1 Niay mine ; 

2 Kia, thine ; 

3 Agma^ his, hers ; 

N.-B. — Mind also that the possessive adjectives n\ k\ our, 
undergo the same peculiarities as the pronouns. 



Plural. 

1 Niuna, ours, (excl.) 

1 Kiuna, ours, (incl ) 

2 Kiuwdy yours ; 

3 Agmdwdy t'heirs. 



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PART SECOND 



THE ELEMENTS 

OP 

ABENAKIS CONVERSATION. 



VOCABULARY 



Miguen. 

Awighiganebi. 

Pilaskw. 

AwighiganaZ. ^ 

TVissiguakhiganaZ. 

Telaps. 

Faskhigan. 

Peza. 

SasahlogiZ. 

Wiguaol. 

O'gemak. 

"W66baksigamigw. 

Tobi. 

PakuaaZ. 

AbazuodaaZ. 



A pen. 
Some ink. 
Some paper. 
Some books. 
Some envelopes. 
A trap. 
A gun. 

Some powder. 
Some shot. 
A bark-cano). 
Snow shoes. 
A tent. 
A bow. 
Some arrows. 
Some baskets. 



1. The finAl italics mark the plural. 



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62 — 



AplesaAr. 

AzawanimenaA:. 

Nibimena? 

PopokuaZ. 

Adebimena/. 



Some apples. 

Some plums. 

Some bush-cranberries. 

Some cranberries. 

Some cherries. 



USE OF THE VERB 

WajdnCmuk, tvajdndzik^ to have, with the fore- 
going nouns, in the affirmative form. 



N'wajono miguen. 
'Wajonem awighiga- 

nebi. 
N'wajonemebena pilas- 

kw 
KVajonemeba awighi- 

ganal. 
'Wajonemok wissigua- 

khiganal. 
N Vajonob telai)s. 
'Wajonemob paskhi- 

gan. 
N'v^rajonemebenob peza 
KVajonebob sasahlo- 

gii 

'Wajonemobanik wi- 

guaol. 
N'wajonoji ogemak. 
'Wajonemji woobaksi- 

gamigw. 
N'wajonobenaji tobi. 
K'wajonemebaji pakua- 

al. 



I have a pen. 

He (she) has some ink. 

We have some paper. 

You have some books. 

They have some enve- 
lopes, 
I had a trap. 
He (she) had a gun. 

We had some powder. 
You had some shot. 

They had a bark-canoe. 

I shall have snow shoes 
He (she) will have a 

tent. 
We shall have a bow. 
You will have Bome 

arrows. 



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— 63 



'Wajonemokji abazno- 


They will have 


some 


daal. 


baskets. 




NVajonoba aplesak. 


I should have 
apples. 


some 


'Wajonaba azawanime- 


He (she) would 


have 


na. 


some plums. 




NVajonemebenaba ni- 


We should have 


some 


bimenal. 


bush-cranberries. 


K'wajonemebaba popo- 


You would have 


some 


kual. 


cranberries. 




'Wajonemokba adebi- 


They would have 


some 


menal. 


cnerries. 




VOCABl 


[JLART. 


• 


Miiowogan. 


Provisions. 




Nokhigan. 


Flour. 




Moziia. 


Moose-meat. 




Pknazigan. 


Bread. 




Wdama 


Tobacco. 




"Wdamogall. 


Pipe. 




Mkezenal. 


Shoes, moccasins. 




Temahigan. 


An axe. 




Alni-temahigan. 


A tomahawk. 




Lobakbiganal. 


Suspenders. 




O'dolibiogan. 


An oar. ^ 




Temespanahon. 


Scissors. 




Lessagahigan. 


A trunk. 




Paks. 


A box ; chest. 




Pkwessagahigaii or 


A key. 




pkwessaghigan. 






Ohiffitwahigan. 
Alokawogan. 


A rasor. 




Work, labour. 





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— 64 



Tebobakhigan. 

Silkial. 

Aguanagiadiganal. 



Scales ; balance. 

Ribbons. 

Curtains. 



USE OF THE VERB 

Wajdndmuk, wajdndzik, to have, with the fore- 
going nouns, in the negative form. 



O'da n'wajonemow mi- 

jow6g:an. 
O'da wajonemowi nok- 

higan. 
O'da nVajonemoppena 

moziia. 
O'da k'wajonoppa pku- 

azigan. 
O'da wajonawiak wda- 

mo. 
O'da n'wajonop wda- 

mogan. 
O'da wajonemowip mk- 

ezenai. 
O'da n'wajonemoppen- 

ob temahigan. 
O'da k'wajonemoppob 

alni-temahigan. 
O'da 'wajonemowiba- 

nik lobakhiganal. 



I have no provisions. 

He (she) has no flour. 

We have no moose- 
meat. 
You have no bread. 

They have no tobacco. 

I had no pine. 

He (she) had no shoes. 

We had no axe. 

You had no tomahawk. 

They had no suspen- 
ders. 



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— 65 — 

VOCABULARY OF ADJECTIVES. 

(Simple and Invariable). 



Wli. 


Good ; gentle. 


Maji. 


Bad, mean. 


Kchi. 


ar^at, big. 


Msi, mamsi. 


Large ; vast. 


Wski 


New ; young. 


Negoni, nonegoni. 


Old ; ancient. 


Wawasi. 


Holy ; sacred. 


SoM'uiowi. 
Pili, pildowi. 


Saint. 


New. 


"Wobi. 


White. 


MJkazawi. 


Black. 


Sogli. 
Mliki. 


Solid ; stout. 


Strong. 


Noki. 


Soft. 


Pogui. 


Pure ; genuine. 


Sasagi. 


Just ; right. 


Adagi. 


Dishonest ; roguish. 


Pizwi. 


Futile ; senseless. 


Kpagi. 


Thick. 


VVazabi. 


Thin. 


Tkuigui. 


Heavy. 


Tatebi. 


Level ; even ; alike 


Abagi. 


Flat. 



Note. — A.11 the above adjectives signify nothing by them- 
selves ; they signify what is ascribed to them, but when they 
are prolonged by some other syllables ; as, goj geriy etc., etc., 
or connected with some other words, either nouns or verbs. , 
They are therefore invariable, being in somehow but particles 
of worJs. 



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66 — 



THE FOREaoma adjectives 

Prolonged by syllables representing the verb 
to be, and joined to nouns and verbs in the 
aflB.rmative and negative form, either with 
or without interrogation. 



Wligo. 1 

Wligen. ^ ^ 

Wli^en ? Y 
Kchi sibo, (or kchi- 

tegw.) 5 
Msinoguat ? 
Mamsi ki. 

Wski alnoba. 4 
Wski wig worn, (or 

wski gamigw). 

N'manohom n e g 6 n i 

paskhigan. 
N-d-agidam Wawasi 

Awighigan. 
Sogmowi Pial. 
Pill kisos. 

Pildowi ojmowogan. 

Wobigen ? 7 

Wobigen. Y 

Wobigo. 1 

Mkazawigo. 1 

Mkazawigen. Y 

Sogli sanoba. 1 

Mlikigo. 1 

Nokigen. 7 

Pogui moniio. 8 



He, she, (it) is good. 
It is good. 
Is it good ? 
A great river. 

Does it look big ? 
A vast ground. 
A young man. 
A new house. 

I buy an old gun. 

I read the Bible, (lit. 

the holy book.) 
St. Peter. 
The new moon. 
A new history. 
Is it white ? 
It is white. 
He (she) is white. 
He (she) is black. 
It is black. 
A stout man. 
He, she, (it) is strong. 
It is soft. 
Of pure (of solid) silver. 



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67- 



Adagi pmowsowinno. 1 
Pizwi klosowogan^ 6 

Kpagizo pkaami. 
Wmeljassa wazabizoa. 

Tkwguinogwat. ^ 

Tkwguinogwzo. 1 

O'da tatebigenowial. 
Abagigen k'-d-a b a z- 

noda ? 
Abagigen n'-d-a b a z • 

noda. 



A dishonest person. 
A vain talk, a futile 

argument. 
The ice is thick. 
His (her) mittens are 

thin. 
It looks heavy. 
He, she,(it) looks heavy. 
They are not alike. 
Is your basket flat ? 

My basket is flat. 



VOCABULARY OF ADJECTIVES. 



(Contracted and Variable). 



Waligit. 

Walig:ek. 

Majigit. 

Majigek. 

Masgilek. 

Masguikwek. 

Piwsessit. 

Piwsessek. 

Wskia. 

Negonia. 

Wobigit. 

Wobigek. 

Makazawigit. 

Makazawigek. 



Good, handsome. 
Bad, wicked, mean. 
Great, large, big. 

Little, small. 

New. 
Old. 

White. 
Black. 



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Soglizit. ) 
Soglak. ] 
Malkigit. ) 
Malkigek. f 
Nokigit. 
Nokigek. 
Poguigit. 
Poguigek. 
Sasagigit. 
Sasagigek 
Piziwadoit. i 
Piziwadoik. J 
Kapagizit. 
Kapagak. 
Waz£U)izit, ) 
Wazabak. j 
Takwiguelek. 
Takwiguak. 
Abagigit, \ ) 
Abagigek. ) 



68 — 

Solid, strong, durable 

Strong, stout. 

Soft, tender. 

Pure, genuine. 

Straight. 

Useless, void, futile. 

Tjhick. 

Thin. 

Heavy. 

Flat. 



1. Note. — As there are in Abenakis two kinds of Substan- 
tives, viz : the &nimaie, denoting objects having anUnal life ; 
and the inanimate, denoting inanimate objects ; so also there 
are animate and inanimate Adjectives and Verbs, which are 
made to agree with the substantives accordingly. Those 
substantives are distinguished by the termination of the 
pluralt which is always k for the animate, (as well as for the 
personified, which are treated as if they were aniwaie'), and 
/ for the inanimate. We Hkewise distinguish the adjectives by 
their termination in the singular, which is usually, as above, 
h for the animate, and I for the inanimate. 



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— 69 — 

THE FOREaoma adjectives 



JOINED TO NOUNS, EITHER SINOflCJLAR OR PLURAL. 

(Simple and Contracted). 



Wli ases. 
Wli kaoza&. 
Waligijik asesaAr. 
Waligek wigwom. 
Walikkil tasakuabona/. 
Majiwskinnosis. 
Majigit aples. 
MajikkiZ pilaskwimoni- 

aL 
Kchi nebesaZ. 
Masegilek wdahogan. 
MaseguikwkeY kikona/. 
PiwsessijiAr alemossaA. 
Pi wsessek nbizonkikon . 
Wski peljes. 

Wski obagawatahigan. 
Negoni wlomawaldam- 



Wobigit azib. 
Wobikkil masksaa/. 
Makazawigit skuozon- 

tagw. 
Makazawigek silki. 



Soglizit wakolihws. 



A good horse. 

Good cows. 

Fine horses. 

A fine house. 

Fine (good) chairs. 

A bad boy, a mean lad. 

A bad apple, (unsound). 

The counterfeit bank 
notes. 

Great lakes. 

A long (large) paddle. 

Large fields. 

Little dogs. 

A small garden. 

A new pair pants, a 
new pantaloon. 

A new umbrella. 

A superstition, (literal- 
ly : an old imagina- 
tion.) 

A white sheep. 

White blankets. 

Some black thread. 

Some black silk ; 

ribbon. 
A strong cart ; — wheel. 



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— 10-, 



Soglak wagin. 
Malkigit sanoba ; ma- 

liksanit — . 
Malkigek or maliksa- 

noik kadosmowogan. 

Nokigit pohkuasimon. 
Nokigek abazi. 
Pogui alnobak. 
Pizwadoit nodalokat. 
Pizwadoik alokawogan 
Kapagizijik meljassak. 
Kapagakil mkezenal. 

Wazabizit madagen. 
Wazabagil medasal. 
Takwiguelek nidazo. 
Takwi^ak obadahon. 
Abagigijik potoiiak. 
Abagigek abaznoda. 



A strong waggon. 

A stout man ; a strong 

Spirituous liquor, (lite- 
rally : strong beve- 
rage.) 

A soft pillow. 

Some soft wood. 

Full blooded indians. 

A heartless servant^ 

A fruitless labour. 

Thick mittens. 

Thick moccasins, or 
shoes. 

A thin hide. 

Thin socks. 

A heavy animal. 

A heavy cane. 

Flat bottles. 

A flat basket. 



SENTENCES EXEMPLIFYING 

The foregoing Nouns and Adjectives, either iu 
the affirmative, negative, or interrogative 
form. 



N'wajono wli ases. 
O'da wajonawi wli kao- 

za. 
K'wajonobena waligi- 

jik asesak ? 
K'manohomebaji wa- 

likkil wigwomal. 



I have a good horse. 
He (she) has no good 

cows. 
Have we some good 

horses ? 
You will buy fine 

(good) houses. 



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— Yl — 



Wlitoakba walikkil ta- 

sakwabonal. 
O'da n'kezalmow maji 

wskinnisisak. 
O'da k^dachwalmow 

maji aplesak ? 
O'daaba wdenmowi 

maji pilastwimonial. 
'Namito kchi nebesal. 

Wnamitonal kchi ne- 
besal. 

K'kiz'onkolhoa masegi- 
lek wdabogan ? 

K*kiz'6nkolh6nal mase- 
guikwkil kikonal. 

N'nanawalmonnawkji 
piwsessijik alemos- 
sak. 

K'-d-asam6w6kba ale- 
mossisak ? 

W-d-opcM nokapodo- 

nal piwsessekil nbi- 

zonkikonal. 
N'kiz'onkolho wski pel- 

jes. 
O'da k'waniadow wski 

obagawatahigan ? 
Kaguessi negoni wlo- 

mawaidamwoganni ? 
N'nihlo wobigit azib. 



They would make fine 

chairs. 
I don't like bad boys. 

Don't you want some 

bad apples ? 
He would not take the 

conterfeit bank notes. 
He (she) sees some great 

lakes. 
He (she) s^ees the great 

lakes. 
Have you (thou) sold 

the large paddle ? 
Have you (thou) sold 

the large fields ? 
We will keep the little 

dogs. 

Would you feed the 

little dogs ? the 

puppies ? 

He (she) is harrowing 
the small gardens. 

I have sold a new pan- 
taloon. 

Did not you lose a new 
umbrella ? 

What a superstition is 
that? 

I killed the white sheep. 



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-12 — 



Awakatoak wobikkil 

masksaal. 
N'-d-achoalmo sknoson- 

tagw wobigit. , 
N'-d-achoaldam silki^ 

wobigek. 
K'-d-alokamibesa sogli- 

zit wakolikws ? 
N'-d-alokamib soglak 

wagin. 
N'-d-ogazahobenaba 

malkigit sanoba. 
K'wikuenembenaba 

(malkigek) kadosmo- 

wogan. 
N Vajono nokigit poh- 

knasimon. 
N'wajonem nokigek 

abazi. 
Pogui alnobak kiuwo ? 

Pogni alnobak niuna. 

O'do niuna pogui alno- 
bak. 

O'da n'-d-achwalmow 
pizwadoit nodalokad. 

'Wlito pizwadoik alo- 
kawogan. 

O'pchito pizwadoik 
alokawogan. 

K'kiz'anobok kapagizi- 
jik meljassak ? 



They use white blan- 
kets. 

I want some white 
thread. 

I want some white silk. 

Did you order a strong 
cart? 

I ordered a strong wag- 
gon. 

We would hire a stout 
man. 

We would take some 
(spirituous) liquor. 

I have a soft pillow. 

I have some soft wood. 

Are you full blooded 

indians ? 
We are full blooded 

indians. 
We are not full blooded 

indians. 
I don't want a heartless 

servant. 
He (she) makes a use- 
less work. 
He (she) is making a 

useless work. 
Did you buy the thick 

mittens ? 



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13 — 



K' kiz'anohobmebesa 
kapagakil mkezenal ? 

N'manohoba wazabisi- 
jik madagenok. 



Did you buy some thick 

moccasins ? 
I should buy some thin 

hides. 



1 Pazekw. 

2 Pazego. 

3 Pazegweii. 

1 Nis. ) 

2 Nisoak. > 

3 Nisnol. \ 



Nas. ) 
Nloak. [ 
3 Nhenol. ) 

1 law. ) 

2 lawak. > 
lawnol. ) 
Nolan. 
Nonnoak. 
Nonnenol. 

Nguedoz. 
Tobawoz. 



1 
2 



3 
1 
2 
3 



OF NUMBEES. 
(1. Cardinal numbers.) 

One. 

Two. 

Three. 

Four 

Five. 

Six. 
Seven. 



Observation. — Cardinal numbers from one to five, as above, 
are of three kinds, viz : I. Abstract numbers or those used 
merely in counting : pazekw, nis, nas, etc., one, two, three, 
etc ; 2. Concrete numbers or those pertaining to the limita- 
tion of the animate objects. Bind perso7iified things; as, pazego 
sanoba, one man ; nisoak mdniak, two dollars ; 3. Concrete 
numbers used to determine things only ; as, pazegwen awigliU 
gan, one book ; nonnenol ivigtvomal, live houses. 



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H 



Nsozek. 

Noliwi. 

Mdala. 

Nguedonkaw, 

Nibonkaw. 

Nsonkaw. {pron : cotv) 

lawonkaw. 

Nononkaw. 

Nguedoz kasonkaw. 

Tobanoz kasonbaw. 

Nsozek kasonkaw. 

Noliwi kasonkaw. 

Nisinska. 

Nisinska taba pazekw. 

Nisinska taba nis. 

Nisinska taba nas. 

Nisinska taba iaw. 

Nisinska taba nolan. 

Nisinska taba nguedoz. 

Nisinska taba tobawoz. 

Nisinska taba nsozek. 

Nisinska taba noliwi. 

Nsinska. 

Nsinska taba pazekw, 
&c. 

lawinska. 

lawinska taba pazekw, 
&c. 

Nonninska. 

Nonninska taba pa- 
zekw, &c. 

Ngnedoz kasinska. 



Eight. 

Nine. 

Ten. 

Eleven. 

Twelve. 

Thirteen. 

Fourteen. 

Fifteen. 

Sixteen. 

Seventeen. 

Eighteen. 

Nineteen. 

Twenty. 

Twenty-one. 

Twenty-two. 

Twenty-three. 

Twenty-four. 

Twenty-five. 

Twenty-six. 

Twenty-seven. 

Twenty-eight. 

Twenty-nine. 

Thirty. 

Thirty-one, &c. 

Fourty. 
Fourty-one, &c. 

Fifty. 
Fifty-one, &c. 

Sixty 



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-75- 



Nguedoz kasinska taba 
pazekw, &c. 

Tobawoz kasinska. 

Tobawoz kasinska taba 
pazekw, &c. 

Nsozek kasinska. 

Nsozek kasinska taba 
pazekw, &c. 

Noliwi kasinska. 

Noliwi kasinska taba 
pazekw, &c. 

Nguedatgua. 

Nguedatgua taba pa- 
zekw, &c. 

Nisatgua. 

Nisatgua taba pazekw, 
&c. 

Nsatgua. 

Nsatgua taba pazekw, 
&c. 

lawatgua. 

lawatgua taba pazekw, 
&c. 

Nonnatgua. 

Nonnatgua taba pa- 
zekw, &c. 

Nguedoz kasatgiia. 

Nguedoz kasatgua taba 
pazekw, &c. 

Tobawoz kasatgua. 

Tobawoz kazatgua taba 
pazekw, &c. 

Nsozek kasatgua. 



Sixty-one, &c. 

Seventy. 
Seventy-one, &c. 

Eighty. 
Eighty-one, &c. 

Ninety. 
Ninety-one, &c. 

One hundred. 
Hundred and one, &c. 

Two hundred. 

Two hundred and one, 

&c. 
Three hundred. 
Three hundred and one, 

&c. 
Four hundred. 
Four hundred and one, 

&c. 
Five hundred. 
Five hundred and one, 

&c. 
Six hundred. 
Six hundred and one, 

&c. 
Seven hundred. 
Seven hundred and one, 

&c. 
Eight hundred. 



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— 16 — 



Nsozek kasatgua taba 

pazekw, &c. 
Noliwi kasatgua. 
Noliwi kasatgua taba 

pazekw, &c. 
Nguedoinkuaki. (pron. 

— ak— ki.) 
Nisomkuaki taba nis. 

Nsomkuaki taba iias. 

lawomkuaki taba iaw. 

Nonnomkuaki taba 
nolan. 

Nguedoz kasomkuaki. 

Tobawoz kasomkuaki. 

Mdala kasomkuaki. 

Nguedatgua kasom- 
kuaki. 

Nonnatgua kasomkua- 
ki. 

Kchi-nguedomkuaki. 

Nisda kchi-nguedom- 
kuaki. 

Mdala kasta kchi-ngue- 
domkuaki. 



Eight hundred and one, 

&c. 
Nine hundred. 
Nine hundred and one, 

&c. 
One thousand. 

Two thousand and two, 

&c. 
Three thousand and 

three. 
Four thousand and four 
Five thousand and five. 

Six thousand. 
Seven thousand. . 
Ten thousand. 
Hundred thousand. 

Five hundred thousand 

One million. 
Two millions. 

Ten millions. 



(2. Distributive numbers.) 
Papazego ;papazegwen 
Nenisoak ; nenisnol. 



One by one ; one each, 

or to each. 
Two every time, three 

each, or to each. 



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11 



Nenloak ; nenhenol. 

leiawak ; ieiawnol. 

Nenonnoak ; nenonne- 

nol. 
Nenguedoz. 

Tetobawoz. 

Nensozek. 

Nenoliwi. 

Memdala. 

Nenguedonkaw. 

Nenisonkaw. 

Nensonkaw. 

leiawonkaw. 

Nenonnonkaw. 

Nenguedoz kasonkaw. 

Tetobawoz kasonkaw. 

Nensozek kasonkaw. 



3 every tim#, 3 each, or 
to each. 

4 every time, 4 each, or 
to each. 

5 every time, 5 each, or 
to each. 

6 every time, 6 each, or 
to each. 

I every time, 1 each, or 
to each. 

8 every time, 8 each, or 
to each. 

9 every time, 9 each, or 
to each. 

10 every time, 10 each, 
or to each. 

II every time, 11 each, 
or to each. 

12 every time, 12 each, 
or to each. 

13 every time, 13 each, 
or to each. 

14 every time, 14 each, 
or to each. 

15 every time, 15 each, 
or to each. 

16 every time, 16 each, 
or to each. 

17 every time, 17 each, 
or to each. 

18 every time, 18 each, 
or to each. 



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18 



Nenoliwi Jcasonkaw. 

Nenisinska. 

Nenisinska taba pa- 

zekw. 
Nensinska. 

N ensinska t aba pazekw. 

leiawinska. 

Nenonniska. 

Neneguedoz kasinska. 

Tetobawoz kasinska. 

Nensozek kasinska. 

Nenoliwi kasinska. 

Nenguedatgua. 

Nenguedalgua taba pa- 
zekw. 
Nenisatgua. 

Nensatgua. 

leiawatgua. 



19 every time, 19 each, 
or to each. 

20 every time, 20 each, 
or to each. 

21 every time, 21 each, 
or to each. 

30 every time, 30 each, 
or to each. 

31 every time, 31 each, 
or to each. 

40 every time, 40 each, 

or to each. 
50 every time, 50 each, 

or to each. 
60 every time, 60 eacji, 

or to each. 
YO every time, YO each, 

or to each. 
80 every time, 80 each, 

or to each. 
90 every time, 90 each, 

or to each. 

100 every time, 100 
each, or to each. 

101 every time, 101 
each, or to each. 

200 every time, 200 
each, or to each. 

300 every time, 300 
each, or to each. 

400 every time, 400 
each, or to each. 



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-1^ 


9 — 


Nenoliwi kasatgna. 


900 every time, 900 




each, or to each. 


Nenguedomkuaki. 


1000 every time, 1000 




each, or to each. 


Nenisomkuaki. 


2000 every time. 2000 




each, or to each. 


Nensomkuaki. 


3000 every time, 3000 . 




each, or to each. 


Nenguedoz kasomkua- 


6009 every time, 6000 


ki. 


each, or to each. 


Nenoliwi kasomkuaki. 


9000 every time, 9000 




each, or to each. 


Memdala kasomkuaki. 


10,000 every time, 10,- 




000 each, or to each. 


Nenisinska kasomkua- 


20,000 every time, 20,- 


ki. 


000 each, or to each. 


Nenguedatgua kasom- 


100,000 every time, 100,- 


kuaki. 


000 each, or to each. 


Kekchi nguedomkuaki. 


1,000,000 every time, 




1,000,000 each, or to 




each. 


(3. MultiphjU 


tg Numbers.) 


Pazgueda. 


Once. 


Nisda. 


Twice. 


Nseda. 


Three times. 


lawda. 


Four times. 


Nonneda. 


Five times. 


Nguedoz kasta. 


6 times. 


Tobawoz kasta. 


Y " 


Nsozek kasta. 


8 " 


Noliwi kasta. 


9 " 



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— 80 — 



Mdaia kasta. 

Nguedonkaw kasta. 

Nonnonkaw kasta. 

Noliwi kasonkaw kasta 

Nisinska kasta. 

Nisinska taba pazekw 
kasta. 

Nisinska taba nis kasta. 

Nsinska kasta. 

Nsinska taba iiolan 
kasta. 

lawinska kasta. 

Nonninska kasta. 

Nguedatgua kasta. 

Nguedoz kasatgua 
kasta. 

Nguedomkuaki kasta. 

Kchi-ngaedomkuaki 
taba neguedoz kasat- 
gua taba nonninska 
taba nolan kasta. 



10 times. 

11 " 
15 " 

19 *' 

20 " 

21 " 

22 " 
30 " 
35 " 

40 " 

50 •' 

100 " 

600 " 

1000 *^ 

1000,655 " 

(Literally : one great 
thousand and six 
hundred and fifty and 
five times.) 



(4. Multiplying^ 
Papazgueda. 
Nenisda. 
Nenseda. 



'Distributive Numbers,) 



Once very time ; once 

each, or to each. 
Twice every time ; 

twice each, or to each. 
Three times every time, 

3 times each, or to 

each. 



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Google 



— di — 



leiawda. 
Nenonneda. 
Nenguedoz kasta. 
Tetobawoz kasta. 
Nensozek kasta. 
Nenoliwi kasta. 
Memdala kasta. 
Nenizonkaw kasta. 
Nenonnonkaw kasta. 
Nenisinska kasta. 



Neuisiuska taba paze- 
kw kasta. 



I 



G 



4 times every time ; 

4 times each, or to 
each. 

5 times every time ; 

5 times each or to 
each. 

6 times every time ; 

6 times each, or to 
each. 

7 times every time ; 
Y times each, or to 
each. 

8 times every time ; 

8 times each or to 
each. 

9 times every time ; 

9 times each, or to 
each. 

10 times every time ; 

10 times each, or to 
each. 

12 times every time ; 

12 times each, or to 

each. «' 

15 times every time ; 

15 times each, or to 

each. 

20 times every time ; 

20 times each, or ta 
each. 

21 times every time ; 

21 times each, or ta 
each. 



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Google 



— 82 — 



Nensinska kasta. 
leiawinska kasta. 
Nenonninska kasta. 
Nenguedatgua kasta. 
Nenisatgua kasta. 
Nenonnatgua kasta. 



Nenguedomkuaki 
kasta. 



80 times every time ; 

80 times each, or to 

each. 
40 times every time ; 

40 times each, or to 

each. 
50 times every time ; 

50 times each, or to 

each. 
100 times every time ;_ 

100 times each, or to 

each. 
200 times every time ; 

200 times each, or to 

each. 
500 times every time ; 

500 times each, or to 

each. 
1000 times every time ; 

1000 times each, or to 

each. 



(5. Ordinal numbers marking the order and succes- 
^ sion of animate objects, and personified things.) 



Nitamabit. 
Nis akwobabit. 
Nas akwobabit. 
law akwobabit. 
Nolan akwobabit. 
Mdala akwobabit. 
Nonnonbaw akwobabit. 



The first. 
The second. 
The third. 
The fourth. 
The fifth. 
The tenth. 
The fifteenth. 



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Nguedoz kasonkaw 
akwobauit. 

Nisinska akwobabit. 

lawinska akwobabit. 

Noninska akwobabit. 

Nguedoz kasinska ak- 
wobabit. 

Noliwi kasinska akwo- 
babit. 

Noliwi kasinska taba 
noliwi akwobabit. 

Nguedatgua akwobabit. 

Nguedatgna taba non- 
ninska kwobabit. 

Ngnedomkuaki taba 
nonnatgua taba n6n> 
ninska taba nolan ak- 
wobabit, etc., etc. 



The sixteenth. 

The twentieth. 
The fortieth. 
The fiftieth. 
The sixtieth. 

The ninetieth. 

The ninety-ninth. 

The hundreth. 

The hundred and fif- 
tieth. 

The thousand five hun- 
dred and fifty-fifth, 
etc., etc. 



(6. Ordinal numbers marking the order and 
succession of things.) 



Nitamatak. 
Nis akwobtak. 
Nas akwobtak. 
law akwobtak. 
Nolan akwobtak. 
Mdala akwobtak. 
Nonnonkaw akwobtak. 
Nguedoz kasonkaw ak- 
wobtak. 
Nisinska akwobtak. 
lawinska akwobtak. 



The first. 
The second. 
The third. 
The fourth. 
The fifth. 
The tenth. 
The fifteenth. 
The sixteenth. 

The twentieth. 
The fortieth. 



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— 84 



Nonninska akwobtak. 

Nguedoz kasinska ak- 
wobtak. 

Noliwi kasinska taba 
noliwi akwobtak. 

Nguedatgua taba non- 
ninska akwobtak. 

Mdala kasomkaaki taba 
nonnatgua taba non- 
ninska taba nolan 
akwobtak, etc. 



The fiftieth. 
The sixtieth. 

The ninety-ninth. 

The hundred and fif- 
tieth. 

The ten thousand five 
hundred and fifty 
fifth, etc. 



(7. Ordinal numbers marking the order and succes^ 

sion of chapters, verses, sections of laws, 

articles of regulations, etc.) 



Nitamagimguak or pa- 

zekw alagimguak. 
Nis alagimguak. 
Nas alagimguak. 
Nolan alagimguak. 
Mdala alagimguak. 
Nisinska alagimguak. 

Nonninska alagimguak. 
Nguedatgua a 1 a g i m- 
guak, etc., etc. 



First. 

Second, or secondly. 
Third, or thirdly. 
Fifth, or fifthly. 
Tenth, or tenthly. 
Twentieth, or twenti- 

ethly. 
Fiftieth, or fiftiethly. 
Hundreth, or hun- 

dredthly, etc., etc. 



(8. Fractional numbers.) 



lawi chebenozik. 
Psigia ; pabasi... 



lOne quarter. 
! The half. 



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— 85 — 



lawi chebenozik nsi- 
chebat. 

Nasi chebenozik. 

Nasi chebenozik nisi- 
chebat. 

Nonni chebenozik. 

Nonni chebenozik nsi- 
chebat. 

Nguedoz kasi chebe- 
nozik. 

Mdala kasi chebenozik. 

Mdala kasi chebenozik 
iawi-chebat. 

Ngnedatgua kasi che- 
benozik, etc. 



Three quarters ; three 

fourths. 
The third. 
Two thirds. 

One fifth. 
Three fifths. 

One sixth. 

One tenth. 
Four tenths. 

One hundredth, etc. 



* (9. Multiple numbers ) 



Pkawiwi. (or nisda 
pkawiwi.) 

Nseda pkawiwi. 

lawdi pkawiwL 

Nonneda pkawiwi. 

Nguedatgua kasta pka- 
wiwi. 



The double. 

The triple. 
The quadruple. 
The quintuple. 
The centuple. 



Digitized by 



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— 86 — 

vooabulAlRY of adverbs, preposi- 
tions, CONJUNCTIONS AND 
INTERJECTIONS. 



INVARIABLE PARTICLES. 



(1. Adverbs.) 



O'hoo. 

Ealaata. 

O'da. 

Kizi. 

Mina. 

Askaa. 

Asma. 

Kigizi. 

Wlogwa. 

Saba. 

Pita. 

Nopaiwi. 

Pasojiwi. 

Toni. 

Toni kasi... 

Mawia. 

Awasiwi. 

Chitoiwi, (chito...) 

Nodoiwi, (nodo...) 

Tagasiwi, (tagasi...) 

Wigawojiwi, (wiga- 

w6ji...) 
Sipkiwi, (sipki...) 
Nadawiwi, (nadawi.. 
Nabiwi, (nabi...) 



Yes. 

Indeed ; truly ; in fact. 

No ; not ; neither, nor. 

Already ; after. 

Again, yet, still. 

Still, again. 

Never, not yet. 

Already ; beforehand. 

Yesterday. 

To-morrow. 

Very, much. 

Far. 

Near ; nearly. 

How ; where ; what. 

How much. 

Better. 

Beyond, furthermore. 

Further ; worst. 

Less. 

Little ; few. 

Often, frequently. 

Late. 

Seldom, rarely. 
Early, soon. 



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i 



S1- 



Mamlawiwi, (mamia- 

wi...) 
Sasagiwi, (sasagi...) 
Nitta. 

Pasodawiwi. 

Pabomiwi. 

Ni. 

Kwaskuai. 

(Wami..., tabi...) 

Wzomi. 

Mina. 

Askua awasiwi. 

(Kassi...) 

Nobi kassi. 

Aiwa. 

TJ, iu, u tali. 

Ni, entii, ni tali. 

Kizi. 

Almitebihlok. 

Askna mina. 

Chiga. 

Ni, ni adoji. 

N6wat, negoniwi. 

Wskebi, kizilla. 

Wigodamiwi, (wig6- 

Kassiwi. 

Pabomiwi. 

Nalwiwi. 

Paliwi. 

Kwajemiwi. 

Chebiwi. 



Much ; abundantly. 

Straight, directly. 
Forthwith, immediate- 

Near, nearly. 

About. 

So ; and. 

Enough. 

Enough. 

Too much. 

More ; again. 

Furthermore, moreover 

So much, so many. 

As much, as many. 

Almost. 

Here. 

There. 

Already. 

Afterwards. 

Yet, still yet. 

When. 

Then. 

Formerly. 

Perhaps. 

Willingly. 

Together. 

About. 

Everywhere. 

Elsewhere. 

Out ; outside. 

Besides. 



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— 88 — 



Kwelbiwi. 

Awasiwi. 

Nikuobioji. 

Tasiwi. 

Waz wawi, ( waz wa . . . ) 

Nikoniwi, (nikoni... i) 



Behind. 

Beyond, over. 

Henceforth, hereafter. 

Upon. 

Back, backward. 

Ahead, forward. 



(2. Prepositions,) 



Asma awdimokw. 
Kisi spozikimuk. 
Nikoniwi agmak. 
Kasiwi wijiaa. 
Kikajiwi chebessagahi- 

ganek. 
Alomiwi ababskedak. 
Oji papaioda. 
Kwelbiwi kloganek. 
"Wskijiwi tawipodik. 
Naguiwi abonek. 
Nansawiwi tawzogani- 

kok. 
Laguiwi niak. 
Chebiwi awossisak. 
Weji moni. 
Kwani podawazimnk. 
Akuobi kistozik. 
Aknobigek chowagi- 

damwoganal. 



Before the war. 
After breakfast. 
Before him. 
With is brother. 
Against the wall. 

In the stove. 
Since his arrival. 
Behind the door. 
On the table. 
Under the bed. 
Between the windows. 

Towards me. 
Besides the children. 
For cash. 

During the council. 
According the decision. 
According the com- 
mandments. 



1 Note. These adverbs placed between parenthesis mean 
what is ascribed to them but when they are placed before [a 
verb, or an adjective, and never can be used otherwise : 
Nikdni mdjobf he (she) went ahead. 



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— 80 — 



Wskijiwi abakuoganek. 


Upon the roof. 


Weji nilidwogan. 


Concerning (for) that 

aflFair. 
About two dollars. 


Pabomiwi, nisoak mo- 


niak. 




Sobiwi whagak. 


Through the body. 


Wiwniwi wigwomek. 


Eound the house. 


Pasodawiwi or pasoji- 


Near us. 


wi niunak. 




Seboiwi or aseboiwi 


Along the fence. 


pemelodigan. 




Knajemiwi aiamihawi- 


Out of the church. 


gamigok. 




Tatebesbawiwi odanak. 


Opposite the city. 


Weji nia. 


As for me, for me, for 

my part. 
Up to the clouds. 


Lli asokwek. 


Awasiwi odanak. 


Beyond the city,village. 


Pdzijiwi ni. 


Above that, — place. 


(3. Covji 


inctions.) 


Ta, ni. 


And ; also. 


Achi. 


Also. 


Kodak. 


Thus ; as. 


Wzomi. 


For, because. 


Oji ali. 


Whereas ; because. 


Kanwa. 


But ; however. 


Taolawi. . 


As ; like. 


Ni nawa. 


Therefore, then- 


Toni adoji. 


When. 


O'da. 


Nor. 


Chaga, 


If. 



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— 90 



Toni. 

Kanwa. 

Ali. 

Minagtiiba. 

Waji ; wajiji. 

Fajitebihloga. 

Ni wattak. 

Weji alinsatozik. 

Tabat, tabatta. 

0;daki. 

Aiaga ; chaga oda. 

Anegitta. 

Nobi taolawi. 

Oji ali. 

Oji ali nsatozik. 

Tabat. 

Eaalaki. 



Whether, if. 

Nevertheless. 

That ; because. 

Though, although. 

That, in order that. 

In case, if. 

Therefore ; wherefore. 

For fear that. 

Provided that. 

Bather than. 

Unless. 

As soon as. 

As well as, in the same 

way as. 
As ; because. 
For fear that. 
Provided that. 
Indeed, in reality. 



(4. Interjections.) 



] 



I 



Ahaa ! 
Enni ! 
lahi ! Y 
Wligen ! I 
Aiioo ! J 
Akkwajala ! 
Eaamoji ! 
Niaiaga ! 
Saaginogw ! 
Kdem6gin6gw 
Wessagin6gw ! 
Saagad ! 
O'galiguomuk ! 



Exclamations express- 
ing success and satis- 
faction. 



Articulations express- 
ing embarrassment. 

Articulations express- 
ing commiseration or 
pity. 



^ Digitized by 



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J 



— 91 — 



Wha! 
Nha! 
£lam6ji ! 
AUiguanogw ! 
Ah! ) 
Aie! } 
Aah! ) 
Sh't ! ) 
Tabat! \ 



Exclamations express- 
ing derision or irony. 

Exclamations express- 
ing disapprobation. 

Articulations com- 
manding silence. 



FAMILIAR PHRASES TO FACILITATE 
CONVERSATION. 

(1. For questionings affirming^ denying ^ going, 
comings SfC,) 



Awani na ? 
Nmitogwes na. 
Kagui or Kagwes ni ? 
Wizowimonii sakhilja- 

hon. 
Toni k'-d-lanohomenni 

sakhiljahon ? 
Nonnoak moniak. 
Kagui 11a ? 
Nawji papoldoak, keta- 

gik awdoldoak. 
Kagui llit6guat ? 
O'da kagui nodamiwi. 
Chiga paioan ? (sing.) 

Wlogwa or wlogoa. 



Who is that ? 
That's my father. 
What is that ? 
A gold ring. 

How much did you pay 

for that ring Y 
Five dollars. 
What is the matter ? 
Some are playing, the 

others are fighting. 
What is the news ? 
Nothing particular. 
When did you come ? 

(arrive ?) 
Yesterday. 



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— 92 — 



Kagui askawitoan ? 

N'd-askawiton n'mo- 

nim. 
Kagui k'-d-eliwizi ? 
N'-d-eliwizi Sozap. 
Kagui k'-d-idam ? 
Odatta n'keloziw. 
Kagui k'-d-elaloka ? 

(sing.) 
Kagui k'-d-elalokaba ? 

(daul.) 
Kagui k'-d-elalokhedi- 

ba? (plur.) 
N'-d-abaznodakabena.i 

N'-d-abaznodakhedibe- 

na. 
Kagui kadi nadodema- 

wian ? 
K'kadi nadodemol waji 

nadmihian nlhoak 

moniak. 
Awani u wigwom ? 
Awani u wigit ? 
Nmessis. 

Nichenis. 



"What are you waiting 

for? 
I am waiting for my 

money. 
What is your name ? 
My name is Joseph. 
What do you say ? 
I don't speak at all. 
What are you doing ? 

(sing.) 
What are 

(dual.) 
What are 

(plur.) 
We are 

kets*. 

We are making bas- 
kets. 
What do you want to 

ask me ? 
I want to ask you to 

lend me three dollars. 

Whose house is this ? 
Who lives here ? 
My sister (older than I.) 
My brother. ) (younger 
My sister. ) than I.) 



you doing ? 

you doing ? 

making bas- 



1. IT'd-ahaznodakahena is generally used when speaking of 
iwo or more persons, if their number is definite to the speaker ; 
but when he has no definite idea of the number of persons 
performing the action, he will say : ri'dabaznodaMiedibenaf 
we (many of us) make baskets. 



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J 



— 93 — 



Awani ulil w'-d-awik- 

higanal ? 
Awani nilil w'pilasko- 

mal ? 
Nidopso ulil w'-d-awik- 

higanal. 

Nitsakaso nilil w'pilas- 

komal. 
Kagxii n'-d-achowi 11a- 

lokabena ? 
Kagui k'-d-achowi 11a- 

lokabena ? ^ 
K'-d-achowi mqjibna 

kpiwi. 
Awani kwilawahoan ? 
Kagui kwilawatoan ? 
Kagui waniadoan ? 
N'moswa nVaniadon. 



NVaniado moni 

N'waniadon moni. 

Ni alak. Lla ni. 

K'kizi wlomawalda- 
mikhoga. 

Akui nitta wlomaw al- 
ma mziwi awani. 

Alni ni k'-d-idamen ? 



Whose books are these ? 

Whose papers are tho- 
se ? 

These books are my sis- 
ter's—belong to my 
sister. 

Those papers belong to 
my sister. 

What have we to do ? 

What have we to do ? 

We have to go into the 
woods. 

Whom do you look for ? 

What do you look for ? 

What have you lost ? 

I lost my handkerchief, 
(lit: my handkerchief 
I lost it.) 

I lost some money. 

I lost the money. 

It is the truth. It is true. 

You have been imposed 
upon. 

Don't believe immedia- 
tely every body. 

Do you joke ? 



1. Here we includes the person or persons to whom the inter- 
rogation is made; wher.as in the preceding sentence, ive 
excludes the person or persons spoken to ; as given in the 
article of pronouns ^ at the end of the First Part of this book. 



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94 — 



O'da k'olomawalmelo. 
K'ol6ina ; wloma. 

O'da wl6mawi ; 6da 
wlomawiak. 

Wz6mi kelozo. 

Wzomi msddoak. 
Sognawabigw ; k'oz6- 

mi nesktogwziba. 
KVawinawowd na sa- 

n&ba? 
N Vanaldamen w Vizo- 

wogan. 
O'da tabindguatowi ni 

tbelodozo. 
N'-d-achewaldamen 

k'olitawin... 
Wliwni wji k'olidaha- 

wogan nia wji. 
K'ozomi wlidaho nia 

wji. 
N'olilawakdgon ni n'- 

d-elalokan kia weji. 

Toni alosaan. 

Toni alosaak. 

Nopaiwi n'-d-elosa. 
O'daaba k'kizi wijawiw 



I don't believe you. 
You are in the right ; 

he is in the right. 
He (she) is not in the 

right ; they are not 

in the right. 
He (she) speaks too 

much. 
They speak too loud. 
Be quiet ; you make 

too much noice. (pi.) 
Do you know that man? 

(plur.) 
I forgot his name. 

It is not worth while 
to speak of that. 

I want you to make 
me... 

I thank you for your 
kindness towards me. 

You are too good to me. 

It affords me pleasure 

to do that for you. 

(sing.) 
Where are you going? 

(sing.) 
Where are you going? 

(plur.) 
I am going far — . off. 
You can't come with 

me. (sing.) 



Digitized by 



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— 96^ 



Pasojiwi n'-d-elesa. 
Wijawigw. 
N'mogi wigiak. 
'Mojo wigiidit. 
'Mojoak wigiidit. 
K'ozomi kezosaba. 
Wzdmi mannosak. 
KVizaka ? 

Llosada agomek. 

Pkagonda, (lessaguo- 
gan, sibo, owdi, etc.) 

Pidigada. 
Sahosada. 
Sahosagw. 
N'-d-aspigodawa. ^ 
N'penodawa. 
TT llagosada. 
Ni alagosaadit. 
Li^osa alnakaiwi 

{ind. and imp.) 
O'da llagosawi pojiwi. 

Sosasagosatta (imp. and 
ind.) 

Wazwassa tagasiwi, 
(imp. and ind.) 

Petegi mina. 



1 am going near by. 
Gome with me (pltir.) 
I am going home* 
He (she) is going home. 
They are going home. 
You walk too fast, (pi.) 
They walk too slow. 
Are you in a great 

hurry ? (sing.) 
Let us go to the other 

side of the riv^. 
Let us cross, (the bridge, 

the river, the road, 

etc.) 
Let us go in. 
Let us go out. 
Go out. (plur.) 
I go up (stairs). 
I go down (stairs). 
Let us go this way. 
They go that way. 
He (she) goes to the 

right ; go to the right. 
He (she) does not go to 

the left. 
Gro straight along ; he 

(she) goes straight 

along. 
Go back a little (sing.) 

he (she) goes back a 

little. 
Go back again (sing). 



Digitized by 



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— 96 — 



Akui moji, dai n kasiwi 

niuna. 
Toni wadosaan? (s^.) 
T6niwado8aakw?(pZ.) 
N'odosa k'wigwomwog 
N'odosa wigiak. 
N'odosa nzasiscA:. * 
Losa ni. 
Wijawi, (sing.) 
Wijawigw, (plnr.) 
Pasodosa skwedak, 

awazi. 
K'-d-askawiholji. 

Skawihigw n tali. 
Towdana klogan, taw- 

zogan. 
Kebaha kloganal ta 

tawzoganal. 
N'moji wigiak nikwobi. 
Sabaji u mina n'paicn. 



Nobitta ni talebat 
w'paion ala oda. 

K'tabiii6gwzin6 k'sa- 
zamhogano. 

Mamagahobanik weji 
pobatamwogan. 



Don't go away, stay 

here with xis. 
Where do you come 

from ? 
I come from your house. 
I como from home. 
I come from my uncle's 
Go there, (sing.) 

Come (along) with me. 

Come near the fire, 
warmed yourself 

I will wait for you, 
(sing.) 

Wait for me here,(sing). 

Open the door, the 
window, (sing.) 

Shut tlie doors and the 
windows. 

I go home now. 

To-morrow I will come 
here again {lit, to-mor- 
row will here again 
I come at.) 

It is all the same whe- 
ther he comes or not. 

You deserve to be whip- 
ped, (pi.) 

They have been ill trea- 
ted for religion's sake. 



* See tlio explanalions concerning the terms of relationship 
page 22. 



\ 



Digitized by 



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u 



— 91 — 



K'-d-akwamalsoinog- 

wzi. 
Pazego 6pdalmo,kedak 

melierja. 
Azo paami wawodam 

odaki Fial. 
"Wilawigoak tatebiwi. 
Saagigoak tatebiwi ? 

Saagigoak tatebiwi. 

Nobi w'toji wilawigin 
taholawi widokana. 

Kakaswi almi kchiaoo- 
it, kakaswi kagapsa. 

Kakaswi almi alokaa, 



You look sick. 

One laughs, and the 
other weeps. 

John is wiser than 
Peter. 

They are both rich. 

Are the both indus- 
trious ? 

They are both indus- 
trious. 

He (she) is as rich as his 
(her) brother. 

The older he (she] 
grows, the deafer he 
(she) is. 

The more I work, the 



bvGoode 



Kakaswi n' - d - aloka, 
kaswi n'saagowzi. 

Azo adali wawinak 
weji mziwi agakimo- 
gik. 



The more I work, the 
more needy I am. 

John is the most ad' 
vanced of all my 
scholars. 



(2. To inquire after health,) 



Faakainogwzian, nijia. 
Toni k-d-6116wzin ? 
NVowlowzi pita. 

Toni k-d-awossissemak 
w'-d-6116wzin6 ? 

Wowlowzoak mziwi. 

Toni kigawes w'd-61- 

lowzin ? 

O'da kuina wowlowzi- 

wi. 
. K§Lgui lowza ? 

Wesgainogana mzena. 
N' -d-elsedam knojikw 

agua achi momada- 

malso. . 
Llaki ni, w'kuedogan 

w'-d-akuamadamen . 
Nowat wa awossis w'- 

noji akwamalsin ? 
O'da kuina nowat. 
KVajonem nbizonal. 



am 



Gr(fod morning, Sir ^ 
How do yon do ? 
Very well, {lit : I 

very well.) 
How do your children 

do? 
They are all well. 
How does your mother 

do? 
She is not (very) well. 

What is her illness ? 

(what ails her ?) 
She has got a cold. 
I have heard your uncl^ 

is also unwell. 

So it is, he has got a 
sore throat. 

Has this child been sick 
now a long time ? 

No, not very long. 

Have you any medici- 
nes ? 



1. Note.— i^Tyia (my brother) is used instead of Sir in English. 



Digitized by 



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I 



— 99 — 



N'mesalto wli nbizonal. 

Vig 
Ian. 



N'wigodam ni alsedo- 



I have many good me- 
dicines. 

I am happy to hear you 
say so. 



(B. Of the Age.) 



K'kasigadema ? 
Nisinska n'kasigadema. 
Kasigademak kmitog- 

wes ta kigawes ? 
Nmitogwes nguedoz 

kasinska kasigadema, 

ni nigawes nonnins- 

ka. 
Pita kizi kchiaoo nmito 

gwes. 
Nigawes paami kchiai- 

nogwezo odaki kasi- 

gademad. 
W?ki alnobao ; wski 

phanemoo. 
Askua pita k'nahnoga- 

mato, olawi pita k'ki- 

chiavvwi. 
N'-d-alamizowi wah- 

wogomo Tabaldak 

milit soglamalsowo- 

gan akwobigademaa. 
K'kasigadema taholawi 

nia ? 
N'kasigadema taholawi 

kia, taholawi agma. 



How old are you ? 

I am twenty years old. 

How old are your father 

and your mother ? 
My father is sixty years 

old, and my mother 

fifty. 

My father is already 

very old. 
My mother looks older 

than she is. 

He is a young man ; 
she is a young woman. 

You are yet active (vi- 
gorous), although 
very old 

I thank the Lord who 
gives me good health 
in my age. 

Are you of my age ? 

I am of your age, of his 
age. 



Digitized by 



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— 100 



Nia adali kchiawwia. 
Nia adali awossiswia. 
Awani paami kchiaw- 

wit kiuwo nisiwi ? 
Awani adali kchiawwit 

kiuwo nloiwi ? 
Nia. 
K'kasobaiba ? 

N'nisobaibena, n'neeo- 

baibena, n'iawobai- 

bena. 
0*da nVajono (or n'wa- 

jonow) nijia, or oda 

n'owijiaiw. 
O'da 'waj'onawi wijiaa, 

or 6'da wijiaiwi. 
O'da wajonawi widob- 

soa, or oda wldob- 

somiwi. 
Kasoak awossisak 

kVajono ? 
N'wajono nguedoz 

awossisak : nisoak 

wskinnosisak ta ia- 

Avak nokskuasisak. 

Kasigadema adali 
kchiaowit k'-d-aw6s- 
sisem ? 

Adali kchiaowit n'-d- 
awossisem nguedoz 
kasonkaw kasigade- 
ma. 



I am the oldest. 
I am the youngest. 
Who is the oldest of 

you two ? 
"Who is the oldest of 

you three ? 
It is I. 
How many brothers are 

you ? 
We are two brothers, 

three, four brothers. 

I have no brother. 



He has no brother. 

She has no brother ; 
he has no sister. 

How many children 
have you ? 

I have six children : 
two boys and four 
girls, (literally : two 
little boys and four 
little girls.) 

How old is the oldest 
of your children ? 
(your oldest child). 

The oldest of my chil- 
dren is sixteen years 
of age. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 101 — 



Kasigadema ato wa 

wski alnoba ? 
Awossisoo askoa pita, 

kanwa kwenakuezo. 
Nadawiwi nikuobi 

pmowzowinino kwe- 

nowzo nguedatgua. 
Nmahbm nikwobi 

nguedatguat taba iaw 

kasigadema. 



How old may this 
young man be ? 

He is young yet, but 
he is tall. 

It is seldom that a per- 
son now lives to the 
age of a hundred years 

My grandfather is now 
a hundred and four 
years of age. 



(4. On the hour.) * 



Kasomkipoda ato nek- 

wobi ? 
Nguedomkipoda pabo- 

miwi. 
Tabenatta sokhoban. 

Kisos sokhipozo. 
Kizi nowwat chakuat. 

O'da, askua pita spozoo. 

Toni ato kwobkisgad ? 

Kizi paskua. 

Kwaskuai paskua nik- 
wobi. 

Mqjob kizi paskuat 
nisomkipodak. 

Pagadosab nguedoz 
kasomkipodak spo- 
zowiwi. 



"W hat o'clock may it be 

now ? 
It is about one o'clock. 

The day-break will 

soon appear. 
The sun is rising. 
It is late (speaking in 

the morning). 
No, it is early yet (in 

the morning.) 
How late may it be (in 

the day) ? 
It is already noon. 
It is just noon now. 

He started after 
twelve o'clock (noon) 

He came back at 
six o'clock in the 
morning. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 102 — 



Kizi nkihla. 

Kizi ato kamqjitebakad 

O'da, asma nodamite- 
bakadowi. 

Kizi nowitebakad ? 

O'da, asmo nowiteba- 
kadowL 

Kizi nikwobi paami 
(or awasiwi) nowite- 
bakad. 

N'mojiji kizi nowite- 
bakka. 

Paiab nahnowitebakka. 

K'ospozi toki wiga- 

w6jiwi ? {sing.) 
K'ospozi tokiba wiga- 

wojiwi ? (plur.) 
N'ospdzi tokibenll ma- 

jimiwi. 
Chowi spozi tokin ma- 

jimiwi 
O'miki, (or omki), nijia, 

kizi chakaat. 
K'sazlgodam ; k'ozomi 

sazipkekwfii. 
Asma noliwi kas6m- 

kii)odawi. 
Kina papisookuazik, 

kizi mdala kas6mki- 

poda. 



It is sun down. 

It must be late in the 
night. 

No, it is not yet late 
(in the night.) 

Is it already midnight ? 

No, it is not yet mid- 
night. 

It is now midnight 
past. 

I will start after mid- 
night. 

He (she) came at mid- 
night. 

Do you generally get up 
eqrly in the morn- 
ing ? 

We always get up early 

in the morning. 
One must always get 

up early. 
Get up, my brother, it 

is day light. 
You are lazy ; you 

sleep too long. 
It is not yet nine 

o'clock. 
See the clock, it is 

already ten o'clock. 



Digitized by 



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— 103 — 



O'daani mojowiwi pa- 

* pisookuazik. 

O'da n'-d-aspigu6ba- 

khamowenab. 
Tebaikisosogan mojoo ; 

kizi mdala taba pa- 

basiwi. 
Adoji ndup akuamada- 

ma, odaaba n'kizi 

omikiw nikwobi. 
Toni w'toji nkihlon (or 
nkosan) kisos nikwobi ? 
Nkihla ngnedoz taba 

pabasiwi. 
Ohiga k'mojiba wigi- 

akw ? 
Nmojibenaji .wigiak 

kwaskuai nonnom- 

kipodaga. 
Tebaikisosogan u (or u 

tebaikisosogan) pita 

wligen. 
Wli tebaikisosogan n. 
Toni Uowado ? 

Llowacjo nisinska taba 

nolan moniak. 
Kizi u aawakamnk. 

N'tebhikisosogan wzo- 

mi kezosao. 
Nia wzomi mannosao. 



That clock is not going. 
I did not wind it up. 

The watch is going ; it 
is now (already) half 
past ten. 

I have such a headache, 
I can't get up now. 

At what time does the 
sun set ? 

It sets at half past six 
(o'clock). 

When will you go ho- 
me ? 

We will go home at 
five o'clock precisely. 

This watch is very fine 
(or very good.) 

This is a good watch. 
Hpw much did it cost ? 

It cost twenty five 

dollars. 
It is a second hand 

watch. 
My watch goes too fast. 



Mine goes too slow. 



Digitized by 



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— 104 — 



Agma wlosao. 

Wkiz'onkohlon w'te- 

bhikisosogan. 
N' kiz'onkohlonana 

n'tebhibizosoganna. 

K'kiz'onkohlonana k'te- 
bhikizofioganna. 



His keeps the right 

time. 
He has sold his watch. 

We have sold our 
watch, (we, i/ou ex- 
cluded.) 

We have sold our 
watch, (we, j/ou in- 
cluded) 



(5. On the weather.) 



Toni llekisgad. 

Wlekisffad. 

O'da wlekisgadwi. 

Majkisgad. 

Pita majkisgad, or pita 

neskekisgad. 
Asokwad ? 
Asokwad. 
Wli kakasakwad. 
Kisosoo. 
O'da kisoswiwi. 
Pesgawan. 
Kzelomsenoso. 
Kinlomsen. 

Tkelomsen. 
Sakpolomsen. 
N'-d-elaldam soglonji 

pamekisgak. 
Soglonoso askua. 



How is the weather ? 

It is fine weather. 

It is not fine weather. 

It is bad weather. 

The weather is very 
bad. 

Is it cloudy ? 

It is cloudy. 

It is clear fair weather. 

The sun shines. 

The sun does not shine. 

It is foggy. 

It blows a little. 

It blows hard, it is stor- 
my. 

The wind blows cold. 

It blows a gale. 

I think it will rain to- 
day. 

It rains a little yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— 106 — 



Ejlzi akwlon. 
Askna pson. 
Soglonji mina pita 

nabiwi. 
Noli wissebagezi. 
Nia achi nVissebagezi. 
O'dakiuwo k'wissege- 

zippa ? 
Noli wia^ebagezibena. 
O'da n'wajonemoppena 

obagawatahigan. 
N'namilio mana^non. 
Iddza ni agua KOi^awi 

wawlekisgad. 
O'da majimiwi, wzomi 

nongueji askua pe- 

padlon kogasogueni- 

wi. 
Wawamamguat ali pi- 

lowelomsek. 
K'kinlonamibena walo- 

guiga. 

Toni aiiakwza kwani 

padogiiwik ? 
N'-d-aib kikonek moja 

padogiiwik. 
K'nodam nawa kagui 
. Hi wagaloka padogi ? 

Fadogi pagessin aiami- 

hawigamigok. 
O'da awanihi nhlawi ? 



The rain is over.^ 
It is snowing yet. 
It will rain again very 

soon. 
I am all wet. 
I am wet too. 
Are you not wet ? (pi.) 

We are all wet. 

We have no umbrella. 

I see the rainbow. 

They say that it is a 
sign of fine weather. 

Not always, because it 
sometimes rains for 
many days after. 

One perceives that the 
wind is changed. 

We had a great storm 
yesterday in the eve- 
ning. 

Where were you during 
the thunder storm. 

I was in the field when 
it began to thunder. 

Did you hear that the 
thunder has done any 
damage ? 

The thunder-bolt fell 
upon the church. 

Did it kill any body ? 



Digitized by 



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— 106 — 



Asma wawalmeguado- 

wi. 
Pilaskwikolvji chowi 

nodoguaJ. 

Melikaskadenji saba. 

Kizi nikwobi meliki 
keladen. 

O'da iii6lhidah6iugua- 
dowi : kwaskuai nik- 
wobi nowi ppon. 

N'kwaskuaji pita. 

Pidiga, nodawazi. 

Neljial obizmogopwal. 
Kamguena tkebik. 

O'da n'-d-elaidamowe- 

nab ali tkebi wligek 

weji ni. 
Kizi kuinatta msogna* 

ta. 
Llaguinoguat pitaji 

mliki ppon pamika- 

dek. 
Pita tkelomsem pami 

kizi paskuak. 



It is not known yet. 

The newspapers will 
not fail to give an 
account of it. 

We shall have a hard 
frost to-morrow. 

It freezes very hard 
now. 

It is not surprising : we 
are in the middle of 
winter. 

I am very cold. 

Come in and warm 
your self. 

My fingers are benum- 
bed with cold. 

Steep them in cold wa- 
ter. 

I didn't think that cold 
water was good for 
that. 

The snow is quite deep 
already. 

It is likely to be sharp 
this year. 

The wind blows very 
cold this afternoon. * 



Digitized by 



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— 101 — 



(6. On the time of the night) 



Kizi adoji mojimuk, 

kizi kamodloguihla. 
Kamdji kVizaka, asma 

noliwi kasomkipo- 

dawi. 
Noliwi ? Kizi noliwi 

taba pabasiwi. 

Kagai wisakaman ? as- 
ma nodamitebakado- 

Wzomiga n'kawi maji- 

niwi mdala kasom- 

kipodak. 
Adoji nadawiwi paioan 

k'-d-achoiba p a a m i 

sipkabi. 
Akuiga kagui Ualda, 

n*pakaldamikhowab 

alijl pagadosaa asma 

mdala kasomkipo- 

dannokw. 
N'-d-eli nkawatzi aliji 

saba paami sipkodo- 

kaziakw. 
Ni weji aiagaji paami 

nabi paioana. 
N'paioji asma p e z- 

dannogw* 
Adio. 



It is time to go, it 

grows late. 
You are in a great 

hurry, it is not yet 

nine o'clock. 
Nine ( o'clock ? ) it is 

already half past 

nine. 
"What hurries you away 

so soon ? it is not 

late, (speaking of the 

night.) 
It is because I usually 

go to bed at ten 

o'clock. 
You come so seldom 

that you ought to 

stop a little longer. 
You '11 excuse me,(/t7 : 

be not oifended,) I 

promised to be at 

home before ten 

o'clock. 
I hope to-morrow we 

will be (talking) 

longer together. 
For that you will have 

to come earlier. 
I'll be here before dark. 

G-oodbye. 



Digitized by 



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— 108 — 



(7. On arriving at the liotel) 



Nidobak, n pita wlitebi 
nogaad soghebaiga- 
migw. 

K'nawadosanana nawa 
u? 

Fidigada. 

N'kiziba tosgomeuana 
n? 

Fakalmeguat. 

KVajonem nawa alo- 
msagol sigwtagil ? 

Kalaato, k'meznembaji 
walojovrigil alom- 
sagwsisal ta abonal 
walikkil u tali. 

Lli wlaldak'olitebi pon- 
san, wzomi taketa 
nonogajibena. 

Azo, Uosala ugik wdo- 
winnoak kchi alom- 
sagok, ni k'olitebi 
ponsan nitta. 

Lli wlalda k'namitlin 
alomsagw toni acho- 
wi tosgoma. 

Mali, wdena wasanemo- 
gan ni k'noji namit- 
lon wa wdowinno 
w'-d-al6msagom. 

N'kiziba mzenem alom- 
sagw owdik alagw- 
tag? 



My friends, here is a 
respectable looking 
inn. 

Stall we alight here ? 

Let us go in. 

Can we stop over night 
here ? 

Of course. 

Have you any spare 
rooms ? 

Yes, gentlemen, you 
will find handsome- 
ly-furnished rooms 
and good beds here. 

Please make a good fire, 
for we are benumbed 
with cold. 

John, show the gentle- 
men into the parlour, 
and make a good fire 
immediately. 

Please let me see the 
room I am to sleep 



m. 



Here, Mary, take a can- 
dle and show the 
gentleman to his 
room. 

Can I have a room loo- 
king into the street ? 



Digitized by 



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109 — 



adali wligek ti tali 
wigwomek. 

K'-d-eli wlaldamenba 
k'tokimin nonomki- 
podaga sposowiwi ? 

Kalaato, odaaba n'wa- 
naldamowen. 



Sir, here is the best in 

the house. 
Would you (be so kind 

as to) awake me up 

at five o'clock in the 

morning ? 
Yes, Sir \ I will not 

forget it. 



(8. To embark in a ship.) 



Nidoba, k'kiziba Ihin 
toni H ao u ktolagw 
alosaik Plachmon- 
kik? 

N'-d-elaldam ao paze- 
gwen. 

K'kiziba Ihin toni li 
mojoo pamekisgak ? 

N'-d-elaldam pamekis • 
gak, kanwa waji 
pakaldaman, k'-d- 
achowiba klolo cap- 
tin. 

loni ait ? 

W'-d-al6msagomek. 

Toni aik w'-d-alomsa- 
gom, ala w'wigwom? 



My friend, can you tell 
me if there is a ship 
in the harbour going 
to France ? 

I believe there is one. 

Can you tell me if she 

sails to-day ? 
I believe she will ; but 

to make sure, you 

must speak to the 

captain. 

"Where is he ? 
In his office, (room). 
"Where is his office, or 
his house ? 



1. The term " Sir " or •* Gentleman ", expre<ised in Abena- 
kia by Wdowitmo, which means : man of high class, is always 
omitted in this language, when we address the person or 
persons themselves 



Digitized by 



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-no — 



Captin ao {or wigo) 
kchi owdik, nonnins- 
ka taba nolan ala- 
gimgnak, awasiwi 
post'office-ek, 

Kizi w'-d-ain w'-d-Q^ce- 
mek. 

Paakuinogwzian, kap- 
tin, chiga k'-d-elal- 
dam k'mojaaksi. 

N'mojiji almitta ntami 
tamagak saba, wlite- 
belomsega. 

Kagui waji oda mqjiw- 
wan pamekisgak al- 
mitta mina tamagak ? 

"Wzomiga w'-d-aino ko- 
gaswak pmowsowin- 
noak kizi pakalda- 
mikhogik aliba oda 
mojiwwa nodoiwi 
saba ; ta achi oda 
maowelomsenwi pa- 
meloguik. 

Toni llowado alholdi- 
mnk? 

Nisinska taba nolan mo- 
niak taba pabasiwi. 

N'-d-ilhegaab ali wibi- 
wi mdala. 

Toniji kweni pmakan- 
ninana sobagok ? 



The captain lives in the 
Main street, No 55, 
beyond the post- 
office. 

He is in his office no^'^. 

Grood morning, captain, 
when do you expect 
to sail? 

I shall go by the first 
tide to-morrow, if the 
wind is favourable. 

Why don't you go to- 
day by the next tide ? 

It is because I have se- 
veral persons (passen- 
gers) to whom I have 
promised not to sail 
before to-morrow ; 
and moreover the 
wind is not fair this 
evening. 

What is the fare for t ho 
passage ? 

Twenty-five dollars and 
a half. 

I was told it was only 
ten. 

How long shall we be 
at sea ? 



Digitized by 



Google 



— Ill — 



O'daaba n'kki idamo- 
wen kwaskuai, wzo- 
mi u akwobigadek 
kzelomsen oda pakal- 
megnadowi. 



I can't tell exactly, 
because at the season 
the wind is uncer- 
tain. 



(9. On the point of leaving.) 



Ni nikwobi, nidobak, 
k'kizi spozipibena ta 
odabibena, ni k'-d-a 
chowi kistonana toni 
k'- d-elkanninana li 
(orlli) London, 

Ao pegua kogasnol 
owdial waji ni losa- 
muk ? ^ 

O'hoo, k'kizi sasagosa- 
bena ta Hi London 
stimbotek, ala k'pika- 
gobena Hi Dover ni 
niwji alnahlagwow- 
dik Hi London. 

Nadodemokada chiga 
mojahla stimbot. 

N'-d-Hhega ali mojah- 
log kwaskuai nonom- 
kipodaga. 

Pi tan i wlitebosao kiu- 
na wji ; ni anegi ni- 
somkipodak, ]|iwaj6- 
nemebenaji kisokw 
waji pabomosaakw 
ta namitoagw odana. 



Now, my friends, we 
have had our break- 
fast and rested oursel- 
ves, we must decide 
which way we shall 
go to London. 

Are there several ways 
of going ihere? 

Yes, we can go direct 
to London by the 
steamer, or else cross 
to Dover, and thence 
to London by the 
railway. 

Let us inquire when 
the steamboat starts. 

I am told that she lea- 
ves at five o'clock 
sharp. 

That suits us very well; 
it is but two o'clock, 
we shall have time 
to walk (about) and 
see the city. 



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— 112 



Kizi iawomfcipoda 
mjessala nononkaw, 
k'-d-achowi petegi- 
bena Uaguiwi mami- 
litiganek. 



It is a quarter to four, 
we must turn our 
steps towards the 
wharf. 



(10. On board the steamboat) 



Ni kizi k'pozinana. 
K'nodamen engine alto- 

guak ? 
0*da ni wibiwi, achi 

n'wawamadamen ali 

nanamipodak stim- 

bot. 
Kagui k'-d-elowzi ? 

K'pilwinogwzi. 
O'da n'olitebamalsiw ; 

n'majilawoji paami 

sibkabiona u wskido- 

lagua. 
Niga, losada kchiiiloin- 

kagok. 
Kizi k'-d-akuamalsi ? 
O'da (or odaagaki) take- 

ta, kanwa pita n'ma- 

jilawaamalsi. 
Niagaki wji, oda kagui 

n'-d-iiliogowen soba- 



Now we are on board. 
Do you hear the noise 

of the engine ? 
Not only that, but I also 

feel the steamboat 

shaking. 

What is the matter with 
you ? You look pale. 

I don't feel very well ; 
I shall be sea- sick if 
I remain longer on 
deck. 

Then, let us go in the 
main cabin. 

Are you sick already ? 

Not exactly, but rather 
qualmish. 

As for me, I am not 
subject to sea-sickness. 



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— 118 — 



Kizi n'mawiaamalsi. 
K'kiziji nikwobi u 
oaiuana, waji wlitebi 
namitoagw wigwo- 
mal tali Dover. 

Tabenatta k'nodagahlo- 
bena ; kizi pazobin 
nodagakik. 



I feel better now. We 
can remain here now, 
so as to se^ distinctly 
the houses at Dover. 

We shall soon arrive 
(land) ; we are in 
sight of land. 



(11. On Travelling by water in the Indian country.) 



Nidoba chiga k'pozi- 

bena ? 
O'da n'wawaldomo- 

wen ; odaaba alwa 

n'kizi mojiw pama- 

lakamuk. 
Kagai weji ? 
Wzomiga oda n'odoliw. 

K'kadawtoli nawa ? 

Ohoo, n'olitoji pazeg- 
wen nabiwi ; kizi 
n'wajonemen mas- 
kua. 

K'wajono koksk kasi 
chowalmoan ? 

Oh66, n Vajono.' 

K'nitowtoli, nidoba. 

Nowatga n'noji tolin. 

8 



Friend, when shall we 
embark ? 

I don't know ; I will 
probably not be able 
to start this week. 



Why? 
Because 



I have no 



canoe. 
Do you intend to make 

a canoe ? 
Yes, I will make one 

soon ; I have the 

bark already. 

Have you all the cedar 
you want ? 

Yes, I have. 

You are skilful in mak- 
ing canoes, my friend. 

It is a long while since 
I have constantly 
made canoes. 



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— 114 — 



Wlitawi nia achi pazeg- 
wen, nidoba ; k'olo- 
banko^ji. 

K'olitolji pazegwen. 

U k'dol, nijia ; k'maho- 
winamen ? 

Kalaato, nidoba. 
Chowi ato melikigen. 
U k'monim. 
Wliwni, nijia, k'olitebi 

obankawi. 
K'pozibenaji Kissanda- 

ga, awibega. 
N'meskawo nisoak 

wski alnobak waji 

wijawgoagw. 
Ntowibiak ? 
Mgeniganak, or mgeni- 

ganooak. 
O'da atoba paamadowi 

k'-d-6dolibianana ? 
N*-d-elaldam wligenba; 

paamikesihlon odoli- 

biamnk odaki pami- 

biamuk. 
Niga, kwilawaha odo- 

libioganak. 
Haw, haw, nidobak ! 

pozoldinaj ! pita 

wlawiben. 



Make also one for me, 
my friend ; I will 
pay you well. 

I will make you one. 

Here is your canoe, my 
brother ; do you like 
it? 

Certainly, friend. 

I suppose it is strong. 

Here is your money. 

Thank you, brotner, 
you pay me well. 

We will embark Mon- 
day, if it is calm. 

I have found two 
young fellows to 
come with us. 

Are they good paddlers? 

First rate. 

"Would it not be better 
that we should row ? 

I think it would be 
good ; we go quickoj^ 
by rowing, than by 
paddling. 

Well, look for the oars. 



Hallod, halloo, my 
friends ! Let us em- 
bark ! It is very calm. 



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J 



115 — 



Kaalatta wlawiben. 

Postoda meziwi k'-d- 

ahimnawal. 
laha, wskinnosisak, me- 

liki odolibiaffW- 
Kakaswi kzelomsen ; 

wlitebelomsen ; si- 

bakhahamoda. 
Enni ! kamdji k'ksak- 

sibena. 
Sam, wlitebokwaa ; 

wli nsato senal. 
Kakaswi kinlomsen ; 

kakaswi achi kino- 

tego. 

Kaamoji ! k'pozogobe- 

na. 
Ponagia sibakhigan. 
Pitaji tabeiaa sakpono- 

guat ; nodagakik 11a- 

chowitoda, ala k'ma- 

chiuabena. 
Sibo u ao pasojiwi ? 
Sibos u Bogdahla 

pasojiwi ; uiji ali- 

phowaakw. 
Ni Uokuaa, Sam. 

Ni k'polowanana. 

Sakpouoguat ! Kina 
nebes aliuoguak ! 



It is very calm indeed. 

Let us embark all our 

luggage. 
Now, boys, row smartly. 

There is more and more 
wind ; the wind is 
fair ; let us sail. 

Aha ! we are sailing 
very fast. 

Sam, steer well ; look 
out for the rocks. 

It blows harder and 
harder ; and the sea 
runs higher and 
higher. ' 

Ah ! the waves come 
in. 

Take down the sail. 

It will be dreadfiol ; let 
us go towards the 
shore, lest we perish. 

Is there a river near ? 
A small river comes in 

near here ; we will 

fly there. 
Steer for that place, 

Sam. 
Now we are out of 

danger. 
A dreadfal time ! See, 

how the lake looks ! 



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— 116 — 



] 



Kizillaji k'd-ali sipki 
kezodhogonana u. 

Sibagtaamoda woobak* 
sigamigw u tali, 
wskinnosisak, kadi 
soglon ; asokwad. 

Kizi soglon. 

Pidigado k'-d-ahimna- 
wal. 

K'-d-achowi spozi mo- 
jibena, wlekisgaka. 



We will perhaps be 
long wind-bound 
here. 

Let us pitch the tent 
here, boys, it will 
rain ; it is cloudy. 

It is raining now. 
Bring in our luggage. 

We must start early in 
morning, if it is fine 
weather. 



12. Ustial conversation between two Indians, when 
they meet together in their hunting ground. 



Euai ! kuai ! ! paakui- 

nogwzian, toni k'-d- 

oUiwzin ? 
N'wowlowzi, kia nawa 

toni? 
N'wowlowzi nia achi, 

wliwni ni. 
Toni nawa k'-d-oUalme- 

gon? 
N'olalmegwga pita pa- 

jnalokamuk. 
N'pitho nisinska tma- 

kuak ta nonnoak 

wnegigwak. 
K'kelhd nawa mosba- 

sak? 



Halloo ! halloo ! ! I am 

glad to see you, how 

do you do ? 
I am very well, and 

you ? 
I am very well, thank 

you. 
What luck have you 

had? 
I have been very lucky 

this week. 
I have caught tweniy 

beavers and five 

otters. 
Did you catch any 

minks ? 



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— m 



N'kelho nguedoz kason- 

kaw. 
N'nihlo achi awasos. 
Wikao? 
Kinigomo. 
Kia nawa toni k'-d-elal- 

meffon ? 
Toni lligen k-d-aki ? 

tmakuaika ? 

O'da kuina ; kanwa 

mozika. 
Kaswak nawa mozak 

k'nihlo ? 
Nisinska taba nis. 
Kamoji, pita ni wligen. 
K'pitho ato achi chowi 

wakaswak tmaknak. 
O'hoo, n'pitho mdala. 
Cha nikwobi hli chiga 

k'kadi nahilo. 
N'-d-elaldam n'nahilqji 

kedak almalokamek. 
N'wigiba nia achi ki- 

zqji ni tojiwi, waji 

nisi nahiloakw. 
Wigidahodamanaga 

k'kasi nahilon nia, 

k'-d-askawiholji tali 

Kwanogamak. 
Niga wligen. Chaga 

chajabihloda. Adio. 
Adio, wli nanawal- 

mezi. 



I have caught sixteen. 

I have also killed a bear. 

Was he fat ? 

Very fat. 

And you, what luck 

have you had ? 
How is your ground ? 

is there plenty of bea- 
ver ? 
Not much ; but there 

is plenty of moose. 
How many moose did 

you kill ? 
Twenty-two. 
Well, that's very good. 
You must have also 

caught few beavers. 
Yes, I have caught ten. 
Now, tell me when you 

intend to go down. 
I think I shall go down 

sometime nex^; week. 
I wish I could get ready 

by that time, so as 

to go home with you. 
If you like to come 

down with me, I 

will wait for you at 

L6ng Lake. 
That's all right. Now 

let us part. Good-bye. 
Good-bye, take care of 

yourself. 



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— 118 — 
EXAMPLES 

SHOWING THE TRANSPOSITION OF WORDS IN THE 
ABENAKIS LANGUAGE. 

Some blue ribbon, 
Waldwigek silki, or : 
Silki walowigek. 

I have some ribbon, 
NTwajdnem silki, or : 
Silki n'wajonem. 

Mary has some ribbon, 
Mali wajdnem silki, or : 
Silki wajonem Mali, 
Mali silki wajonem, 
Silki Mali wajonem, 
Wajonem silki Mali, 
Wajonem Mali silki. 

John has a gray hat, 
Azd wajdnem wibguigek asolkwdn, or : 
Asolkwon wibguigek wajonem Azo, 
Wibguigek asolkwon Azo wajonem, 
Wajonem Azo wibguigek asolkwon, 
Azo wibguigek asolkwon wajonem, 
Wibguigek asolkwon wajonem Azo, 
Wajonem wibguigek Azo asolkwon, 
Asolkwon wibguigek Azo wajonem. . 



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— 119 — 
OTHER EXAMPLES 

SHOWING THE TRANSPOSITION OF THE AFFIXES 



I shall go to Montreal Sunday, 
IT'd-elosaji Molian SandagUj or : 
Sandaga;Y Molian n'-d-elosa, 
MoliaiyY n'-d-elosa Sandaga, 
Sandaga/V n'-d-elosa Molian, 
Molian/f Sandaga n'-d-elosa, 
N'-d-elosa;V Sandaga Molian. 

I would go to New-York if I had money, 
N' 'd-elosaba Netv-York wafdnemdshdna mdni, or : 
New-York6a ^ n'-d?«losa wajonemoshona moni, 
M6ni6a wajonemoshona n'-d-elosa New- York, 
N'-d-elosa&a New- York moni wajonemoshona, 
Monifta wajonemoshona New- York n'-d-elosa, 
Wajonemoshonafta moni n'-d-elosa New- York, 
"W"aj6nem6sh6na&a moni New- York n'-d-elosa. 

* As you see, the affixes ji and bit the former denoting 
tfie fulurcy and Ihfi^tter, the conditioTial, are also transposed. 



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PART THIRD. 



THE PAETS OF SPEECH 

THAT MAY BE CONJUGATED. 



1. CONJUGATION OP THE ANIMATE SUBSTANTIVE 



(Nmitogwes, father.) 



Nmitdgwes. 

Kmitogwes. 

Wmilogwsa. 

Nmitogwsena. 

Kmit6gwsena. 

Kmitogwsowo. 

Wmitogwsowo. 



Nmitogwsenawak. 

Kmitogwsowok. 

Wmitogwsowo. 



Present. — Singular. 

My father. 
Thy father. 
His (her) father. 
Our father, {exclusive,) 
Our father, (inclusive.) 
Your father. 
Their father. 

Plural 

Our fathers, (excl. ) 
Your fathers. 
Their fathers. 



Past. — Singular. 



Nmitogwesega, 

Kmitogwsenoga, 

Kmitogwsowoga, 



My late father, 
Our late father, 
Your late father. 



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122 — 



Plural 



Nmitogwsenogak, 
Kmitogwsowogak, 
"Wmitogwsowoga. 



Our late fathers, 
Your late fathers, 
Their late fathers. 



Future. — Singular. 



Nmitogwesji... 
Kmitogwesji... 
Wmitogwsaji... 
Nmitogwsenaji . . . 
Kmitogwsowoji . . . 
Wmitogwsowoji . . 



My father will... 
Thy father will... 
His father will... 
Our father will... 
Your father will. 
Their father will. 



Plural 



Nmitogwsenawakji . 
Kmit6gwsow6kji . . . 
Wmitogwsowqji . . . 



Our fathers will... 
Your fathers will... 
Their fathers will... 



That is, their fathers respectively. 
Conditional — Present. 



Nmitogwesba.... 
Kmitogwesba... 
"Wmitogwsaba... 
Nmitogwsenaba. . . 
Kmitogwsowoba. 
Wmitogwsowoba. .. . 



My father would... 
Thy father would... 
His father would... 
Our father would... 
Your father would.. 
Their father would. 



Plural 



Nmitogwsenawakba . . . 
Kmitogwsowokba. .. . 
Wmit6gwso woba . . . 

We conjugate likewise ntgataes^ my mother, 
nmessiSy my sister, etc.. etc. 



Our fathers would.... 
Your fathers would.... 
Their fathers would... 



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— 123 



2. CONJUGATION OF THE ANIMATE SUBSTANTIVE. 
(Kaoz, COW.) 

Present. — Singular. 
My cow. 



N'kaozem. 

K'kaozem. 

Wkaozema. 

N'kaozemna. 

K'kaozemwo. 

W'kaozemwo. 



N'kaozemak. 

K'kaozemak. 

Wkaozema. 

N'kaozemnawak. 

K'kaozemnok. 

Wkaozemwo. 



N'kaozemga. 
N'kaozemnoga 

N'kaozemgak. 
N'kaozemgak. 



Thy cow. 
His cow. 
Our cow. 
Your cow. 
Their cow. 

Plural 

My cows. 
Thy cows. 
His cows. 
Our cows. 
Your cows. 
Their cows. 

Past. — Singular. 

The cow I had (owned). 
The cow we h. (otaned). 

Plural. 

The cows I h. (oivned). 
The cows we h. (owned) 

Future. — Singular. 



N^kaozenrji onkohlon. 

Wkaozemaji onkohlona 

N'kaozemnaji onkoh- 
lon. 

Wkaozemwoji onkolo- 
na. 



My cow will be soli- 
His cow will be sold. 
Our cow will be sold. 

Their cow will be sold. 



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N'kaozemakji onkohol- 

nak, 
Wkaozemaji onkohoh 

lona, 
N'kaozemnawakji oji- 

kohlonak, 
Wkaozemwoji onkoh- 
lona. 



— 124 — 

Plwal 

My cows will be sold. 

His cows will be sold. 

Our cows will be sold. 

Their cows will be sold. 



Conditional. — Singular. 

N'kaozemba onkohlon. My cow would be sold 

Wkaozemaba onkohlo- 
na. 

N'kaozemnaba onkoh- 
lon. 



Wkaozemwoba onkoh- 
lona. 



His cow would be sold. 
Our cow would be sold. 



Their cow would be 
sold. 



Plural. 



N'kaozemakba onkoh- 
lonak. 

Wkaozemaba onkoh - 
lona. 

N'kaozemnawakba 6n- 
kohlonak. 

W*kaozemw6ba onkoh- 
lon^. 



My cows would be 

sold. 
His cows would be 

sold. 
Our cows would be 

sold. 
Their cows would be 

sold. 



We conjugate likewise n'-d-aasom^ my horse, 
n'-d-aksenem, my ox, etc., etc. 



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— 125 



3. CONJUGATION OF THE ANIMATE SUBSTANTIVE. 



N'-d-amis. 

K'-d-amis, 

W-d-amisa. 

N'-d-amisna. 

K'-d-amiswo. 

W-d-amisw6. 



(Alemos, dog.) 

Present, — Singular. 

My dog. 
Thy dog. 
His dog. 
Out dog. 
Your dog. 
Their dog. 



Plural. 



N'-d-amisak. 

K'-d-amisak. 

W-d-amisa. 

N'-d-amisnawak. 

K'-d-amiswok. 

W-d-amisw6. 



My dogs. 
Thy dogs. 
His dogs. 
Our dogs. 
Your dogs. 
Their dogs.* 



N'd-amisga, 
N'-d-amisnoga, 



Past-- Singular. 

The dog I had. 
The dog we had. 

Plural. 



N'-d-amisnogak, 
W'd-amiswoga, 



The dogs we had. 
The dogs they had. 



Future. — Singular 

N'-d-amisji k'sagamegw 
W-d-amisaji &c. 
N'-d-amisnaji &c. 
W-d-amiswoji &c. 



My dog will bite thee. 
His dog will &c. 
Our dog will &c. 
Their dog will &c. 



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N'-d-amisakji k'saga- 

megok. 
W-d-amisaji k'sagame- 

gok. 
N'-d-amisnawakji k'sa- 

gamegok. 
W-d-amisw6ji k'saga- 

megok. 



— 126 — 

Plural. 

My dogs will bite thee. 

His dogs will bite thee. 

Our dogs will bite thee. 



Their dogs will bite 
thee. 



ConditionaL — Singulm\ 
N'-d-amisba w'sagama 

W-d-amisaba &:C. 

N'-d-amisnaba &c. 

W-d-ami&woba &c. 



My dog would bite 

him. 
His dog would bite 

him. 
Our dog would bite 

him. 
Their dog would bite 

him. 



Plural. 



N'-d-amisakba w'saga- 
mowo. 

W-d-amisaba w'saga- 
mowo. 

N '-d-amisn a wakba 
w'sagamowo. 

W -d-amis woba w'sa- 
gamowo. 



My dogs would bite 

them. 
His dogs would bite 

them. 
Our dogs would bite 

them. 
Their dogs would bite 

them. 



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— 127 — 



4. CONJUGATION OF THE INANIMATE SUBSTANTIVE. 



N'paskhigan. 

K'paskhigan. 

Wpaskhigan. 

N'paskliiganna. 

K' paskiganowo. 

Wpaskhiganowo. 



(Paskhigan, gun.) 
Present, — Singular, 
My gun. 



N'paskhiganal. 

K'paskhiganal. 

Wpaskhiganal. 

N'paskhigannawal. 

K'paskihiganowol. 

Wpaskhiganowol. 



N'paskhigana 
N'paskhigannawa. 



Thy gun. 
His gun. 
Our gun. 
Your gun. 
Their gun. 

Plural. 

My guns. 
Thy guns. 
His guns. 
Our guns. 
Your guns. 
Their guns. 
Past — Singular, 

The gun I had (owned). 
The gun we h. (owned). 
Plural. 



N'paskhiganegal. 
N^paskhigannogal. 



The guns I had (owned). 
The guns we h. (owned). 



Fulure, — Singular. 



N'paskhiganji onkohlon 
N'paskhigannaji &c. 
K'paskhiganowoji &c. 



My gun will be sold. 
Our gun will be sold. . 
Your gun will be sold. 



Plural, 



N'paskhiganalji onkoh- 

lonal. 
N'paskhigannawalji &c 
Wpaskhiganowolji &c. 



My guns will be sold. 

Our guns will be sold. 
Their guns will be sold. 



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— 128 — 



Conditional. — Singular. 



N'paskhiganba onkoh- 

lon. 
N'paskhigannaba &c. 
Wpaskhiganowoba ifec. 

Plural 



My gun would be sold 



Out gun would be &c. 
Their gun would be &c. 



on- 



N'paskhiganalba 

kohlonal. 
N'paskhigannawalba. 
Wpasbhigannawolba 



My guns would be 

sold. 
Our guns would be ifec. 
Their guns would be &c. 



THE FOKEaOING CONJUGATION, 

N'kaozem^ my cow, transformed into possessive 
verb : Okaozemimuk, to have a cow. 

Indicative Mood. 



N'okaozcmi 

'okaozemo. 

N'okaozemibena. 

K'okaozemiba. 

'Okaozemoak. 



N'okaozemib. 

'Okaozemob. 

N'okaozemibenob. 

K'okaozemibob. 

'Okaozemobanik. 



Present, 

I have a cow. 
He has a cow. 
We have a cow. 
You have a cow. 
They have a cow. 

Imperfect. 

1 had a cow. 
He had a cow. 
We had a cow. 
You had a cow. 
They had a cow. 



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— 129 '- 



N'okaozemiji. 
'Okaozemoji. 
N'okaozemibenaj i . 
K'okaozemibaji. 
'Okaozemoakji. 



Future. 

I shall have a cow. 
He will have a cow. 
We shall have a cow. 
You will have a cow. 
They will have a cow. 



N'okaozemiji kizi, or, 
Kiziji n'okaozemi. 
'Okaozemoji kizi. 
'Okaozemoakji kizi. 



Second Future, 

I shall have had a 

cow. 
He will have h. a cow. 
They will have h. a cow. 



Conditional Mood. 



N'okaozemiba. 
'Okaozemoba. 
N'okaozemibenaba. 
'Okaozemoakba. 



N'okaozemibba. 
'Okaozemobba. 
N'okaozemibenobba. 
'Okaozemobanikba. 



Present. 

I should have a cow. 
He would have a cow. 
We should have a cow. 
They wouldhave acow. 

Past. 

I should h. had a cow. 
He would h. had &c. 
We should h. had &c. 
They would h. had &;c. 



Imperative Mood. 



Okaozemi. 
Okaozemij. 
Okaozemida. 
Okaozemigw. 
Okaozemidij. 
9 



Have a cow. 

Let him have a cow. 

Let us have a cow. 

Have a cow. 

Let them have a cow. 



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130 — 



Subjunctive Mood. 



Present. 

That I may h, a cow. 
That he may h. a cow. 
That we may h. a cow. 
That you may h. a cow. 
That they may h. a cow. 

Past. 
I That I m. h. had a cow. 
&c., after the above tense, commencing by 
kizi. 

Imperfect- 

That I mig-ht h. a cow. 
That he might h. a cow. 
That we might h. a cow. 
That you m. h. a cow. 
That they m. h. a cow. 

Pluperject. 

Kizi n'okaozeminaza. | That I might h.h.a cow. 

&c., after the /mpe^ec/, commencing by kisi, 

CONJUGATION OF THE ADJECTIVE-VERB 

Wdbigimuk, to be white. 

Indicative Mood. 



N'okaozemin. 

'Okaozemin. 

N'okaozeminana. 

K'okaozemino. 

'Okaozemino. 



Kizi n'okaozemin. 



N'okaozeminaza. 

'Okaozeminaza. 

N'okaozeminanossa. 

K'okaozeminossa. 

'Okaozeminossa. 



N'wobigi. 
K'wobigi. 
'Wobigo. 



Present. 

I am white. 
Thou art white. 
He (she) is white. 



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N'wobigibena. 
K'wobigibena. 
KVobigiba. 
'Wobigoak. 



N'wobigib. 

K'wobigib. 

Wobigob. 

NVobigibenob. 

KVobigibob. 

'Wobigobanik. 



— 131 — 

We are white, {excl.) 
We are white, (incl) 
You are white. 
They are white. 

Imperfect. 

I was white. 
Thou wast white. 
He was white. 
We were white. 
You were white. 
They were white. 

Future. 



N'wobigiji. | I shall be white. 

Etc., after the above present tense^ affii^ing^V, 
to the verb. 

Second Future. 



N'wobigiji kizi, ox : 
£iziji n'wokigi, et,c. 



I shall have been white. 
&c., &c. 



* QONDITIONAL MoOD. 

Present. 

N'wobigib^ | I should be white. 

Etc., after the present tense, affixiiig ba to the 
verb. 

Past. 

N^wobigibba. | I should h. been white. 

Etc., after the imperfect tense, affixiag ba to 
the verb. 



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— 132 — 



Imperative. 

Wobigi. Be white. 

Wobigij. Let him be white. 

Wdbigej, Let it be white, 

Wobigida. Let us be white. 

Wobigigw. Be white. 

Wobigiidij. Let them be white. 

Wdbigej, Let them be white, 

(things.) 

Subjunctive Mood, 
Present. 



N'wobigin. 

Etc., etc. 
NVobiginana. 
K'wobigino. 
WVobigino. 



Kizi n'wobigin. 



That I may be white. 

Etc., etc. 
That we may be white. 
That you may be white. 
That they m. be white. 

Past. 

I That I may have been 
I white. 

Etc., after the immediately preceding tense, 
commencing by kizi. 

Imperfect 

N'wobiginaza. 
Etc., etc. 
N'wobiginanossa. 



K'wobiginossa. 
Ww6bigin6ssa. 



That I might be white. 

Etc., etc. 
That we might be 

white. 
That you might be 

white. 
That they might be 

white. 



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— 133 — 

Pluperfect 
Kizi n'wobiginaza. i That I might have l^en 

I white. 
Etc., after the imperfect tense, commencing 
always by kizi. 



NEGATIVE CONJUGATION 



Of the foregoing possessive verb 
mimuk. " 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 



okaoze- 



O'da n'okaozemiw. 
" 'okaozemiwi. 
** n'okaozemippena 
" k'okaozemippa- 
" 'okaozemiwiak. 



I have no cow. 
He has no cow. 
We have no cow. 
You have no cow. 
They have no cow. 

Imperfect, 

I had no cow.' 
He had no cow. 
We had no cow. 



O'da n'okaozemib. 
" 'okaozemiwib. 
" n'okaozemippe- 
nop. 

" k'okaozemippop. 
** 'okaozemi w i b a 
nik. 

Past definite 
O'da n'okamiibozemiib. I had no cow 



You had no cow. 
They had no cow. 



** 'okaozemiwi. 
" n'okaozemippe- 
noop. 



He had no cow. 
We had no cow. 



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184 — 



O'da k'okaozemippoop. 
" 'okaozemiwiba- 
nik. 

Future. 



You had no cow. 
They had no cow. 



Odaaba n'okaozemiw. 1 1 shall have no cow. 

&c., as in the present tense, commencing always 
by ddaaba. 

Second future. 

Asmaji n'okaozemiw. 1 1 shall have had no cow 

&c., also as in the present tense, always com- 
mencing by asmajL 

Conditional Mood. 
Present. 
O'daaba n'okaozemiw. [I should have no cow. 
&c., as in the future tense. 

Past. 

O'daaba n'okaozemib. ( I should h. had no cow. 

&c., as'in the imperfect tense, commencing by 
6daaba. 

Imperative Mood. 



Akui 'okaozemi. 



i( 



'okaozemij. 
'okaozemida. 
'okaozemika^. 
'okaozemiidij. 



Have no cow. 

Let him have no cow. 

Let us have no cow. 

Have no cow. 

Let them have no cow. 



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— 135 — 
SuBJUNCTiTE Mood. 
Present. 
O'da n'okaozemiwwen. 
" 'okaozemiwwen. 
" n'okaozemiwnana. 
" k'okaozemiwno. 
" 'okaozemiwno. 



That I may have no 

cow. 
That he may have no 

cow. 
That we may have no 

cow. 
That you may have no 

cow. 
That they may have 

no cow. 



Imperfect 
O'da n'okaozemiwnaza. 
O'da 'okaozemiwnaza 



That I might have no 

cow. 
That he might have 

no cow. 
That we might have 

no cow. 
That you might have 

no cow. 
That they might have 

no cow. 

This tense is used also for the past and the 
pluperfect tenses. 



O'da n'okaozemiwna- 

nossa. 
O'da k'okaozemiw- 

nossa. 
O'da 'okaozemiwnossa. 



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— 136 — 

AFFIRMATIVE CONJUaATION 

Of the animate objective verb, waj6n6muk,io have. 

(Indefinite conjugation,) 

Indicative Mood. 



N'wajono ases. 
K'wajono &c. 
'Wajona. * 
N'wajonobena \ 
K'wajonobena ) 
KVajonoba &c. 
'Waj6nak. ^ 



N'wajonob kaoz. 
KVajonob &c. 
'Waj6nab. ^ 
NVaj6n6benob &c. 
K'waj6n6benob &c 
KVaj6n6b6b &c. 
'Wajonabanik. ^ 

N'wajdnoob azib. 
KVajonoob. 
'Waj6nab. ^ 
N'wajonobenoob ) 
K'waj6n6benoob . ji 
KVaj6nob66b. 
'Wajonabanik. ^ 



Present, 

I have a horse. 
Thou hast&c. 
He (she) has &c. 

&c. We have &c. 

You have &c. 
They have &c. 

Imperfect, 

I had a cow. 
Thou hadst &c. 
He had &c. 

We had &c. 

You had &c. 
They had &c. 

Past definite, 

I had a sheep. 
Thou hadst &c. 
He had &c. 



We had &c. 

You had &c. 
They had &c. 



* Say : * Waj6na, 'wajOnak, asessa ; 'wajdnab, '\vaj6nabanik, 
kaoza ; , aziha. 



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— m — 

The pa$t definite tense is used also for the past 
indefinite and pluperfect tenses. 



Future 



N'wajonoji alemos. 
K'wajonoji &c. 
*Waj6naji ^ 
N'wajonobenaji ) . ^ 
KVaj[6n6benaji \ ^^' 
K'wajonobaji ifec. 
Wajonakji. ^ 



I shall have a dog. 
Thou wilt have &c. 
He will have &c. 

We shall have. 

You will have &c. 
They will have &:c. 



Second Future. 

N'wajonoji kizi. | I shall have had. 

&c., as above, putting always kizi after the 
verb. 

Conditional Mood. 



Present, 



N'wajonoba asesak. 

K'wajonoba &c. 
'Wajonaba. ^ 
N'wajonobenaba ) 
KVajonobenaba J 
KVajonobaba &c. 
Wajonakba. ^ 



I should have some hor- 
ses. 
Thou wouldst have &c. 
He would have &c. 

We should have &c. 

You would have &c. 
They would have &c. 



* Say: 'Waj(5naji, waj6nakji, a^emo^^a; 'waj6naba, 'wajd- 
nakba, asessa. 



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— 188 — 



Past. 



N Vajonobba kaozak. 

K'wajonobba etc. 
'Wajonabba. * 
N'wajonobenobba ) 
K'wajonobenobba ) 
KVajonobobba &c. 
Wajonabanifcba. ^ 



&c 



I should haye had some 

cows. 
Thou wouldst h. had &c. 
He would have had &rc. 

"We should have had&c 

You would h. had &c. 
They would h. had &c. 



Imperative Mood. 



Wajona. 

Wajonoj. 

Wajonoda. 

Wajonogw. 

Wajonoodij. 



Have (thou.) 
Let him have. 
Let us have. 
Have (ye or you.) 
Let them have. 



Subjunctive Mood. 



Present 



NVajonon azibak. 

K'wajonen &c. 
Wwajonon. * 
NVajononana ) 
K'waj6ndnana ] 
K'wajdnond &c. 
Wwajonono. ^ 



That 1 may have some 

sheep. 
That thou mayest have 
That he may have&c. 

That we may have &c. 

That you may have 6sc. 
That they may have &c. 



* Here, say : WajOnabba, waj6nabanikba, kaoza. 

* Say : W'waj6n6n, wVaj6n6n6, aziba. 



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V 



— 189 



N'wajononaza. 

K'wajononaza. 

Wwajononaza. 

N'wajononanossa. ) 

K'wajononanossa. ] 

KVajononossa. 

Wwajononossa. 



Imperfect. 

That I might have. 
That thou mightst have 
That he might hare. 

That we might have. 

That you might have. 
That they might have. 

Past. 

That I may have had. 



Kizi nVajonon, or 
n'wajonon kizi. 

&c., as in the above present tenser putting 
always Atist before the pronoun, or after the verb. 

Pluperfect. 

Kizi n'wajononaza or J That I might have had. 
n'wajononaza kizi. I 

&c., as in the above imperfect tense, putting 
always kizi before the pronoun, or after the 
verb. 

AFFIRMATIVE CONJUGATION 

Of the awma/c objective verb, wajdndmukyto have. 

{Finite Conjugation,) 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 

N'wajono ases. 1 1 have the horse. 



K'wajono &c. 



I Thou hast &c. 



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— 140 — 



WVajono ^ 
NVajononna 
K'wajononna 
K'wajonowo &c. 
WVajonowo ^ 



tases 



N'wajonob kaoz. 
Wwajonobani ^ 
N'wajononnob &c. 
KVajonowob &c. 
WVajono wobani ^ 



He has the horse. 

"We have &c. 

You have &c. 
They have &c. 

Imperfect, 

I had the cow. 
He had &c. 
We had &c. 
You had &c. 
They had &c. 



This tense is used also for ihepa.it definite^ the 
indefinite and the pluperfect tenses. 

Future. 
NVajonoji. | I shall have. 

&c., after the present lense, affixing ji to the 
verb. 

Second Future, 
NVajonoji kizi. | I shall have had. 

&c., as in the simple future tense, ending by 
kizi. 

Conditional Mood. 

Present. 
NVajonoba alemos. I should have the dog. 
W Vajonoba t He would have &c. 

N Vajononnaba &c. We should have &c. 

KVajonowoba &c. You would have &c. 

WVajono woba t I They would have &c. 

*Here, we say : W'waj6ii6, w'waj6n6w6, asessa; w'wajdnd- 
bani, w*waj6n6w6baiii, kaoza. 
t W'wajdnftba, w'wajdn6w6ba, alemossa. 



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— 141 — 



Past. 



N'wajonobba nolka. 

Wwaj6n6baniba &c. 
N'wajononobba &c. 
KVajonowabba &c. 

W wajonowobaniba &. 



I should have had the 

deer. 
He would have had &c. 
We should have had <fec. 
You would have had 

&;C. 

They would have had 



The remaining moods and tenses are to be 
conjugated as in the foregoing indefinite conju- 
gation. 

AFFIRMATIVE CONJUOATION 

Of the inanimate objective verb, wajdndzik 

to have. 

m 

(Indefinite conjugation,) 
Indicative Mood 



Present. 



N'wajonem awighigan. 
K'wajonem &c. 
'wajonem &;c. 
N'wajonemebena &c. ) 
K'wajonemebena &c. \ 
K'wajonemeba &;c. 
Vajonemok &;c. 



I have a book. 
Thou hast &c. 
He has &c. 

"We have &c. 

You have &c. 
They have &c. 



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~ 142 — 
Imperfect. 



NVajonemob pilaskw. 
K'wajonemob &c. 
'wajonemob &c. 
N Vajonemebenob &c. 
K'wajonemebob &c. 
Vajonemobanik &c. 



I had some paper. 
Thou hadst &c. 
He had &o. 
We had &c. 
You had &c. 
They had &c. 



Past definite. 



N'wajonembob paks. 
KVajonemoob &€. 
'wajonemob &c. 
NVajonemebenoob &c. 
K'wajonemeboob &c. 
'wajonemobanik &c. 



I had a box. 
Thou hadst &c. 
He had &c. 
We had &c. 
You had &c. 
They had &c. 



This tense is also used for the indefinite ])ast 
#nd the pluperfect tenses. 

Future. 

N'wajonemji. | I shall have. 

&c., as in the present tense, always affixingyf 
to the verb. 

Second Future. 

N'wajonemji kizi. | I shall have had. 

&c., as above, ending always by kizi. 



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■J 



— 143—. 

CONDITIONNAL MoOD. 



Present. 



N'wajonemba moni. 

K'wajonemba &c. 
'Wajonemba &c. 
N'wajonemebenaba &;c. 
K Vajonemebaba &c. 
' Wajonemokba &c. 



I should have some mo- 
ney. 
Thou wouldst have &c. 
He would have &;c. 
We should have &c. 
You would have &c. 
They would have &c. 



Past. 



N'wajonemobba mijo- 

wogan. 
K'wajonemobba &:C. 

' Wajonemobba &c. 

N ' wajonemebenobba 

K'wajonemebobba &c. 

Wajonemobanikba &c. 



I should have had some 

provisions. 
Thou wouldst have had 

&c. 
He would have had 

&c. 
We should have had 

&c. 
You would have had 

&c. 
They would have had 



Impekative Mood. 



Wajona. 
Wajonej. 
Wajonemoda. 
Wajonemogw. 
[ Wajonemoodij. 



Have (thou). 
Let him have. 
Let us have. 
Have (ye or you). 
Let them have. 



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• — 144 — 

Subjunctive Mood. 



I 



Present. 



N'wajonemen. a 

Wwajonemen. 

N'wajdnemenana. 

KVaj6iiemen6. 

"WVajenomeno. 



Imperfect. 



That I may have. 
That he may have. 
That we may have. 
That you may have. 
That they may have. 



N Vajonemenaza. b 

W*waj6nemenaza. 

N'wajonemenanossa. 

KVajonemenossa. 

Wwajonemenossa. 



That I might have. 
That he might hare. 
That we might have. 
That you migt have. 
That they might have. 



Past. 



Kizi n'wajonemen. c \ That I may have had. 
Etc., as in the present, commencing by kizi. 

Pluperfect. 
Kizi n'wajonemenaza. | That I might have had. 
Etc., after the imperfect^ commencing by kizi. 



a. Note.-- IfWojonement Ac. means also : I have it, &c. 

b. Ifwc^jonemenaza Ac means equally : I see (I find out) 
that I had it, &c. 

c. Kizi n'wajdnemen, I have it already. 



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— 145 — 

AFFIRMATIVE CONJUaATION 

Of the inanimate objective verb, wajdndzik^ to 
have. 

[Finite Conjugation,] 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 



N'wajonemen 

KVajonemen | 

Wajonemen j^- 

N'wajonemenana ) g; 

K'waionemenana ) eg 

KVajonemeno p 
Wwajonemeno 



I have the book. 
Thou hast &c. 
He has &c. 

We have &c. 

You have &c. 
They have &c. 



Imperfect- 



NVajonemenab 

Wwajoncmab 

NVajonemenanob 

K'wajonemenob 

WVajonemeno 



I had the paper. 
He had &c. 
We had &c. 
You had &c. 
They had &c. 

Future. 



g 

? 



N Vajonemenji. 1 1 shall have. 

Etc., as above after ih.^ present tense, affixing 
always yf to the verb. 

Second Future. 

NVajonemenji kizi. | I shall or will h. had. 

Etc., as in the simple future^ ending by Mzi. 
10 



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— 146 — 

Conditional Mood. 
PresenL 



NVajonemenba moni. 
K'wajonemenba &c. 
Wwajonemenba &c. 
N'wajonemenanaba &c. 
KVajonemenoba &c. 
W Vajonemenoba &c. 



I should h. the money. 
Thou wouldst have &c. 
He would have &c. 
We should have &c. 
You would have &c. 
I They would have &c. 



Past 



N'wajonemenabba pas- 

khigan. 
K'wajonemenabba &c. 

Wwajonemenabba &c. 
NVaj6nemenan6bba &c 
KVaionemenobba &c. 
Wwajonemenobba &c. 



I should have had the 

gtin. 
Thou wouldst have had 

&c. 
He would have had &c. 
We should have had &;c. 
You would have had &c 
They would have had 

&c. 

The remaining moods and tenses are to be 
conjugated as in the indefinitive conjugation. 

NEaATIVE CONJUaATION 

Of the indefinite verb, wafdndmuk, to have. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 

I have no fish. 
He has no &c. 
We have no &c. 



O'da n'wajonow namas. 
" 'wajonawi ^ 
" n'wajonoppena <fec. 



* Say : dda *waj6nawi namasa. 



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— 14t — 



O'da kVajonoppa &c. 
" 'wajonawiak^ 



You have no &c. 
They have no &c. 

Imperfect. 



O'da 'wajonob nolka. 
" 'wajonawib &c. 
" nVajonoppenop 
&c. 
O'da kVajonoppop &c. 
ka. 

" 'wajonawibanik 
&c. 



I had no deer. 
He had no &:c. 
We had no &c. 

You had no iScc. 

They had no &c. 



This tense is used also for the past definite^ the 
indefinite and the pluperfect tenses. 

Future. 

I shall have no beaver. 



O'daaba n'wajonow 

tmakwa. 
O'daaba 'wajonawi &;C. 
O'daaba n'wajonoppena 

&c. 
O'daaba k'wajonoppa 

&:C. 

O'daaba 'wajonawiak 

&:C. 



He will have no &;c. 
We shall have no &c. 

You will have no &c. 

They will have no &c. 



Second Future. 



Asmaji n'wajonow. 
" 'wajonawi. 
** 'wajonawiak. 



I shall not have had. 
He will not have had. 
They will not have had 



* Say : 6da, 'wajdnawiak namasi. 



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— 148 



Conditional Mood. 
Present, 



O'daaba-n'wajonob. 
" 'wajonawib. 
" 'wajonawibanik 



I should have no. 
He would have no 
They would have no. 

Pa$t. 



Asmaba n'wajonow. 
" Vajonawi. 
" 'wajonawiak. 



I should not have had. 
He would not have had. 
They would not have h. 



Imperative Mood. 



Akui wajona. 
" wajonokij. 
" wajonoda. 
" wajonogw. 
" wajonoodikij. 



Have no. 

Let him have no. 

Let us have no. 

Have no. 

Let them have no. 



Subjunctive Mood. 



Present. 



O'da n'wajonowen. 
" n'wajonownana. 
" k'wajonowno. 



That I may not have. 
That we may not have. 
That you may not have. 



Imperfect. 

O'da n'wajonownaza. 
" n- wajoncwnanos 

sa. 
" k'wajonownossa. 



That I might not have. 
That we might not have. 

That you might not h. 



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— 149 — 



Past. 



Asma n'wajonowen. 
" -nVajonownana. 
" k'waj6n6wn6. 



That I may not h. had. 
That we may not h. h. 
That yon may not h. h. 



Pluperfect 



Asma n'wajonownaza. 
" n'wajonowna- 

nossa. 
" kVajonownossa. 



That I might not h. h. 
That we might not h. h. 

That yon might not h.h. 



NEGATIVE CONJUaATION 

Of the finite verb wajdndmuk, to have. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 



O'da n'wajonowi ases. 
*' kVajonowi &c. 
" w'wajonowia ^ 
" n'wajonowinna &c 
" kVajonowiwwo&c 
" w'waj6n6wiww6.=^ 



I have not the horse. 
Thon hast not &c. 
He has not &c. 
We have not &c 
You have not &c. 
They have not &c. 



Imperfect, 



O'da n'wajonowib 

kaoz. 
O'daw'wajonowibani ^ 



I had not the cow. 
He had not &c. 



* Say :— W*wajdndwia, w'waj5n6wiwwd, asessa ;— w'wa 
jdn6wibani kaoza. 



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O'da n'wajonowinnob 

koaz. 
O'da k'Wajonowiwwob 

O'da w'wajfinewiwwo- 
bani. * 



— 160 — 

We had not the cow. 
You had not &c. 
They had not &c. 



This tense is also used for thepa^^ definite^ the 
indefinitey and the pluperfect tenses. 

Future. 

O'daaba n'wajonowi. | I shall not have. 

&c., as above in the present tense, always 
commencing by ddaaba. 

Second Future. 

Asmaji n'wajdnowi. | I will not have had. 

&c., after the preceding tense, commencing 
always by asemaji instead of 6daab€u 

Conditional Mood. 

Present. 



O'daaba n'wajonowi. 
" w'wajonowia. 
" n'wajonowinna. 
" w'wajonowiwd. 

&c., as in the present tense, commencing 
always by ddaabo. 



I should not have. 
He would not have. 
We would not have. 
You would not have. 



* Say :-w'waj6n6w6wibani kaoza. 



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J 



— 161 — 
Past 



O'daaba nVajonowib. 
" wVajonowibani. 
** n'wajonowinnop. 



I should not have had. 
He would not h. had. 
We should not h. had. 



&c.7a8 in the imperfect tense, commencing 
always by ddaaba. 

The remaining moods and tenses are to be con- 
jugated as in the indefinite conjugation. 

NEGATIVE CONJUaATION 

Of the indefinite verb, wajdndzik, to hav^ 

Indicative Mood. 

Present , 

I have no ink. 



O'da n'wajonemo awi- 

ghiganebi. 
O'da k'wajonemo &c. 
O'da 'wajonemowi &c. 
O'da n'wajonemoppena 

&c. 
O' da k'wajonemoppa 

<ScC. 

O'da 'wajonemowiak 
&c. 



Thou hast na &c. 
He has no dcc. 
We have no &c. 

You have no &c. 

They have no &c. 



Imperfect* 



O'dan'wajonemob mos- 

wa. 
O'da k'wajonemob &c. 



I had no handkerchief. 
Thou hadst no ^c. 



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— 152 — 



O'da 'wAJonemowib 

moswa. 
O'da n'wajonemoppe- 

nop &c. 
O'da k'wajonemoppop 

O'da 'wajonemowiba- 
nik Scc. 



He had no handker- 
chief. 
We had no &c. 

Yon had no &c. 

They had no &c. 



Future. 

Odaaba nVajonemo. { I shall have no. 

Etc., after the present tense, commencing by 
ddaaba. 

Second Future. 

Asmaji nVajonemo. | I shall not have had. 

Etc., after the present tense, commencing 
always by asmaji. 

Conditional Mood. 

Present 

O'daaba nVajonemo. | I should have no. 
Etc., as in the future tense. 

Past. 

O'daaba n'wajonemob. | I should not have had. 

&c., after the imperfect tense, commencing 
always by ddaaba. 



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— 163 — 



Imperative Mood. 

Akni wajona. Have no, 

" wajonej. 
" wajonemoda. 
" wajonemogw. 
'' w^'onemoodij. 

Subjunctive Mood 
^Present. 

m 

O'da n Vajonemowen.^^ 
*' wVajonemowen. 
" nVajonemowna- 

na. 
" kVajonemowno. 
" wVajonemowno. 



Let him have no. 
Let US have no. 
Have no. 
Let them have no. 



That I may not have. 
That he may not have. 
That we may not have. 

That yon may not have. 
That they may not h. 



Imperfect. 



O'da nVajonemow- 

naza. 
" wVajonemow- 

naza. 
'* n'wajonemow- 

nanossa. 
** kVajonemow- 

nossa. 
" w'wajonemow- 

nosBa. 



That I might not have. 

That he might not 

have. 
That we might not 

have. 
That you might not 

have. 
That they might not 

have. 



Past 
Asman'waj6nemowen.f|That I may noth. had. 



"^ O'da n'wajonemowen means also : / have it not. 
+ Asma n'wajonemowen, I have it not yet. 



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— 164 — 



. Pluperfect, 

Asma n'wajonemow- 1 That I might not have 

naza. | had. 

&c., as above in the imperfect tense, commen* 
cing always by asma. 

NEGATIVE OONJUaATION 
Of the finite verb, wajdndzik, to have. '^ 
Indicative Mood. 
Present. 

I have not the umbrella. 



O'da nVajonemowen 

obagawataigan. 
O'da w'wajonemowen 

&c. 
O'da n'wajonemowna- 

na &c. 
O'da k'wajonemowno 

&c. 
O'da n'wajonemowno 

&c. 

Imperfect 

O'da n'wajonemowe- 

nab obadahon. 
O'da w'wajonemowe- 

nab &c. 
O'da n'wajonemowna- 

nop 4ec. 
O'da kwajonemownop 

&c. 
O'da w'wajonemow- 

nop &c. 



He has not &c, . 
We have not &c. 
YoT3 have not &c. 
They have not &c. 



I had not the cane. 
He had not a^c. 
We had not &c. 
You had not &c. 
They had not &c. 



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— 156 — 

Future. 

O'daaba n'wajonemo- I I shall not have the 
wen, sakhiljahon. | ring. 

Etc., after the present tense, commencing by 
ddaaba. 

Second Future. 

Asmaji n'wajonemo- I I shall not hare had. 
wen. I 

Etc., after the present tense, commencing 
always by asmaji. 

Conditional Mood. 

Present. 

O'daaba n'wajonemo- I should not have, 
wen. 

Etc., as in the future tense. 

Past. 

O'daaba n'wajonemo- I should not have had. 
wenab. 

Etc., after the imperject tense, commencing by 
ddaaba. 

The remaining moods and tenses are to be con- 
jugated as in the immediately preceding conju- 
gation. 



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— 156 — 

DUBITATIVE CONJUaATION 

Of the animate verb, wajdndmuk, to have 
(Literal). 

" Indicative Mood. 



Present 



Wskebi wajonok te- 

laps. ^ 
Wskebi wajonoan &c. 

" wajonod. t 

" wajonoak &c. 

" wajonoakw &c. 

" waj6n6oait.t 



Perhaps I have a trap. 

** thou hast &c. 

" he has &c. 

" we have &c. 

" you have &c. 

" they have &c. 



Wskebi wajonokza 

tobi. * 
Wskebi wajdnoaza &:c. 
" wajonoza &:C. t 
" wajonoakza &c. 
" wajonoakwza 
&c. 
Wskebi wajonoodiza t 



Imperfect 

Perhaps I had a bow. 



thou hadst &c. 
he had &c. 
we had &c. 
you had &c. 

they had &c. 



This tense is also used for the past indefinite 
and the pluperfect tenses. 

* Always remember that the personified things, being always 
treated as if they were animate^ go and agree with the cmtinate 
verbs. 

i- Say : waj6ndd, w'ajdndodit ielapsa ; wajdnoza, waj6n66- 
diza, iobia. 



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— m — 



Future, 
"Wskebiji wajonok. | Perhaps I will have. 

&c., as in the present tense, placing always 
wskebiji before the verb. 

Second Future. 
Wskebiji kizi wajonok | Perhaps I will have h. 
&c. after the simple future^ putting loskebiji 
kizi before the verb. 

Conditional Mood. 
Present. 
Wskebiba wajonok. | Perhaps I would have. 
Etc., after the imperfect tense, commencing by 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



wskebiba. 



Wskebiji wajonoga. 
wajonoana. 
wajonoda. 
wajonoaga. 
wajonoagua. 
waj6n66dida. 

Imperfect. 

Perhaps if I had 



Perhaps if I have. 
" if thou hast. 
" if he has. 
" if we have. 
" if you have. 
" if they have. 



Wskebiba wajonoges- 

han*. 
Wskebiba wajonoasha- 

na. 
Wskebiba wajonosha- 

na. 



if thou hadst. 
if he had. 



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Wskebiba wajonoages- 

hana. 
Wskebiba wajonoa- 

gueshana. 
Wskebiba waj6n66dis 

hana. 



— 168 — 

Perhaps if we had. 
" if yon had. 
if they had. 



DUBITATIYE CONJUGATION. 

Of the inanimate verb, wajdndzik, to have. 

{Literal.) 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 



Wskebi wajonemamoni 

** wajoneman &c. 

** wajonek &c. 

" wajonemag &c. 

" wajonemagw 

" wajonemoodit 

drC. 



Perhaps I have some 
money* 
thon hast &c. 
he has &c. 
we have &c. 
Yon have c&. 
They have &c. 



Imperfect. 

Wskebi wajo n e m 6 z a 

wizowimoni. 
Wskebi wajone m a z a 

&c. 
Wskebi wajonekeza 

&c. 
Wskebi wajonemakza 

&:C. 



Perhaps I had some 
gold. 
" thon hadst &c. 

** he had &:C. 

" we had &;c. 



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^ 



— 159 — 



Wskebi wajonemakwza 

wizdwimoni. 
Wskebi wajonemoodiza 



Perhaps yon had some 

gold. 
Perhaps they had &c. 



This tense is also nsed for the past indefinite 
and pluperfect tenses. 

Future. 

Wskebiji wajonema. | Perhaps I will have. 

&c., as in the present tense, placing wskebiji 
before the verb. 

Second Future. 

Wskebiji kizi wajonema. Perhaps I will have 

had. 

&c. after the simple future^ . putting wskebiji 
kizi before the verb. 

Conditional Moop. 

Present. 

Wskebiba wajonema. | Perhaps I would have 

Etc., after the present tense, putting always 
tvskebiba before the verb. 

Past. 
■ Wskebiba wajoneinoza | Perhaps I would h. h. 

I Etc., after the imperfect tense, commencing by 
wskebiba. 



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— 160 — 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present 



Wskebiba wajonemona. 
" wajoiiemana. 
" wajonega. 
'* wajdnemaga. 
" wajonemgua 
" wajonemoo- 
dida. 



Perhaps if 1 have. 

if thou hast. 
" if he has. 
" if we have. 
" if you have. 
" if they have. 



Wskebiba wajonemos- 

hona. 
Wskebiba wajouemas- 

hana. 
Wskebiba wajdneges* 

hana. 
Wskebiba wajonema- 

geshana. 
Wskebiba wajonema- 

gueshana. 
Wsbebiba wajonemoo- 

dishana. 



Imperfect. 

Perhaps if I had. 

if thou hadst. 



if, he had. 
if we had. 
if you had. 
if they had. 



Pluperfect, 



Wskebiba kizi wajone- I Perhaps if I had had. 
moshona. | 

&c., after the imperfect, always placing kizi 
between wskebiba and the verb. 



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— 161 



DUBITATIVE— NEGATIVE 

Of the two foregoing dubitative Conjugations 

{Literal) 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 



Walma wajonok ases. 
Walma wajonema mdni. 



Perhaps I have no horse. 
Perhaps I have no mo- 
ney. 
&c., after the present tense of the dubitative, 
always commencing by walma instead of imkebi. 

Imperfect. 
Walma wajonokza mi- 

guen. 
"Walma wajonemoza 
pilaskw. 

&c., after the imperfect of the dubitative, here 
too commencing always by walma. 
Future. 



Perhaps I had no pen. 
Perhaps I had no paper. 



Walmaji wajonok tobi. 

Walmaji wajonema pa- 
kna. 



Perhaps I will have no 

bow. 
Perhaps I will have no 
arrow. 

&c. as in the Present tense, changing walma 
into walmaji. 

Conditional Mood. 
Present. 



Walmaba wajonok 
wdahogan. 
..^"Walmaba wajonema 
wiguaol. 



Perhaps I should have 

no paddle. 
Perhaps I should have 

no canoe. 



&c., after the ind. present of the dubitative. 
11 



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— 162 — 

CONJUaATION OF THE VERB, 

Aimuk, to be. "^ 

Indicative Mood. 

Present 

I am in the house. 
Thou art &c. 
He (she) is dcc. 
We are &c. 
You are &c. 
They are &c. 



N'-d-ai wigwomek. 
K-d-ai &c. 
Ac &c. 

N'-d-aibena &c. 
K'-d-aiba &c. 
Aaok*&c. 



{Negative 
he is not.) 



oda n^'d'aiWf oda aiwi, I am not, 
Imperfect. 



N'-d-aib aiamihawiga- 

migok. 
K'-d-aib &c. 
'Aob &c. 

N'-d-aibenob &c. 
K'-d-aibob &;C. 
'Aobanik &c. 



I was in the church. 

Thou wast &c. 
He was &c. 
We were &:c. 
You were &c. 
They were &c. 



This tense is also used for the past definite. 
Future. 



N'-d-aiji Molian. 

K'-d-aiji &c. 
'Aoji &c. 
N'-d-aibenaji <fcc. 
K'-d-aibaji &c. 
'Aoakji &c. 



I shall or will be in 

Montreal. 
Thou wilt be &c. 
He will be &c. 
We shall be &c. 
You will be &c. 
They will be &:c. 



* Note. — This verb is not an auxiliary j but a principal 
verb, which denotes presence or residence. 



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— 168^ 

Secomd Future. 

N'-d-aiji kizi wigiak... I I shall be at home 

I already. 

&c., after the simple future, putting kizi after 
the verb. 

Conditional Mood. 
Present, 



^^'daiba kpiwi. 


I should be in the woods 


K'-d-aiba &c. 


Thou wouldst be &c. 


'Aoba &c. 


He would be &c. 


N'-d-aibenaba &c. 


"We should be &c. 


K'd-aibaba &c. 


You would &c. 


'Aoakba. 


They would be &c. 


Pc 


ist. 


N'-d-aibba odanak. 


I should have been in 




town. 


K'-d-aibba &c. 


Thou wouldst h. b. &c. 


'Aobba &c. 


He would have b. &c. 


N'-d-aibenobba &c. 


We should have b. &c. 


K'vd-aibobba &c. 


You would have b. &c. 


'Aobanikba &c. 


They would h. b. &c. 


Imperati 


VE Mood. 


Ai. 


Be, stay or remain. 


Aij. 


Let him be or remain. 


Aida. 


Let us be or remain. 


Aigw. 


Be or remain. 


Aidij. 


Let them be or remain. 



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— 164 — 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



{Chotcalddzo) 

N'-d-ain. 
K'^-ain. 

W-d-ain. 

N'-d-ainana. 

K'-d-aino. 

W'-d-aino. 



(Some tvant) 

That I maybe or remain. 

That thou mayest be or 
remain. 

That he may be or re- 
main. 

That we may be or 
remain. 

That you may be or 
remain. 

That they may be or 
remain. 

Imperfect. 

(Some wanted) 
That I might be or rem. 
That he might b. or rem. 
That we m. be or rem. 
That you m. be or rem. 
That they m. be or rem. 

Past. 

I That I may have been 
I or remained. 
Etc., after the present, commencing by kizi. 
Pluperfect. 

Kizi n'-d-ainaza. I That I might have been. 

I or resided. 
Etc., after the imperfect, commencing always 
by kizi. 



(Chotaalddzoba) 
N'-d-ainaza. 
W-d-ainaza. 
N'-d-ainanossa. 
K'-d-ainossa. 
W-d-ainossa. 

Kizi n'-d-ain. 



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— 166 — 

CONJUaATION OF THE ANIMATE 
OBJECTIVE VEEB. 

Namihdmuk, to see. 

(Indefinite Conjugation) 

Indicative Mood. 



Present. 



N'namiho, mosbas. 
K'nainiho &c. 
'Namiha ^ 
N'nainihobena &c. 
K'namihoba &c. 
'Namihak "^ 



I see a mink. 
Thou seest &c. 
He sees &c. 
We see &c. 
You see &c. 
They see &c. 



Imperfect. 



N'namihob inoskuas. 
K'namihob &;c. 
'Namihab ^ 
N'namihobenob &c. 
K'namihobob &c. 
'Namihabanik ^ 



I saw, a muskrat. 
Thou sawest &c. 
He saw &c. 
We saw <fec. 
You saw &;C. 
The saw &c. 



Past definite. 



N'namihoob inateguas. 
K'namihoQb &c. 
'Namihab ^ 
N'namihobenoob &c. 
K'namihoboob ^c. 
'Namihabanik ^ 



I saw a hare. 
Thou sawest &c. 
He saw &c. 
We saw &c. 
You saw &c. 
They saw &c. 



* Say : 'namiha, 'namihak, moshisa ; 'namihab, 'namihaba- 
nik, moskuasa ;—maieguasa. 



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— 166 — 
Past Indefinite. 



N'kizi namiho awasos. 
'Kizi namiha. ^ 
N'kizi namihobena&c. 
K'kizi namihoba &c. 
'Kizi namihak. "^ 



I have seen a bear. 
He has seen &c. 
We have seen &c. 
You have seen &c. 
They have seen &c. 



Pluperfect. 



N'kizi namihob peziko. 
K'kizi namihob &c. 
'Kizi namihab. ^ 
N'kizi namihobenob &c. 
K'kizi namihobob &c. 
'Kizi namihabanik. ^ 



I had seen a buffalo. 
Thou hadst seen &c. 
He had seen dec. 
We had seen &c. 
You had seen &:C. 
They had seen <tec. 



Future. 



N'namihoji molsem. 

K'namihdji dec. 
'Namihaji. ^ 
N'namihobenaji &c. 
K'namihobaji &c. 
'Namihakji. ^ 

Second 
N'namihoji kizi wne- 

gigw. 
K'namih6ji kizi &c. 
'Namihaji kizi. ^ 
N'namihobenaji kizi &c 
K'namihobaji kizi &;C. 
'Namihakji kizi. ^ 



I shall or will see a 

wolf. 
Thou wilt see &c. 
He will see &c. 
We shall see &c. 
You will see &;C. 
They will see &c. 
Future. 
I shall or will have seen 

an otter. 
Thou wilt have seen &c. 
He will have seen &c. 
We shall have seen &c. 
You will h. seen &c. 
They will h. seen &c. 



* Say : namiha, — namihak ai^fl^o^a;— namihab, — ^namiha- 
banik, pesikoa ; 'namihaji, 'namihakji, mdlsemo; 'namihaji, — 
•namihakji kizi, wnegigwa* 



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— 161 — 

Conditional Mood. 
Present. 



N'namihoba mag61ibo. 
N'namihoba &c. 
'Namihaba ^ 
N'namihobenaba &c. 
K'namihobaba &c. 
'Namihakba ^ 



I should see a carribon. 
Thou wonldst see &c. 
He would see &:c. 
We should see &c. 
You would see «fcc. 
They would see &c. 



Past, 



N'namihobba nolka. 
K'uamihobba &c. 
Namihabba &c. 
N'amihobeuobba &c. 
K'namihobobba &c. 
'Namihabanikba .^c. 



I should h. seen a deer. 
Thou wouldst h. sn. &c. 
He would h. seen &c. 
"We should h. seen &c. 
You would h. seen &c. 
They would h. seen <fcc. 



Imperative Mood. 



Namiha. 

Namihoj. 

Namihoda. 

Namihokw. 

Namihodij. 



See (thou). 
Let him see. 
Let us see. 
See (ye or you). 
Let them see. 



Subjunctive Mood. 



N'namihon. 

K'namihon. 

W'namihon. 

N'namihonana. 

K'namihono. 

W'namihono 



Present, 

That I may see. 
That thou mayest see. 
That he may see. 
That we may see. 
That you may see. 
That they may see. 



* Say : 'namihaba, 'namihakba, magdliboa. 



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— 168 — 



Imperfect. 



N'namihonaza. 

K'namihonaza. 

Wnamihonaza. 

N'namihonanossa. 

K'namihoDossa. 

Wnamihonossa. 



That I might see. 
That thon mightest see. 
That he might see. 
That we might see. 
That yon might see. 
That they might see. 



Past 
Kizi n'namihon, | That I may have seen. 

&c., as above, after the present commencing 
by kizi. 

Pluperfect. 

Kizi n'namihonaza, | That I might have seen 
&c., after the imperfect^ commencing by kizi. 

CONJUaATION OF THE ANIMATE 
OBJECTIVE VERB, 

Namihdmuk, to see. 

{Fin ite Conjugation.) 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 



N'namiho alnoba. 
E'namiho &c. 
Wnamiho &c. 
N'namih^ina &c. 
K'namihowo &c. 
Wnamihowo &c. 



I see the indian. 
Thon seest &;C. 
He sees dsc. 
We see &c. 
Yon see &c. 
They see. &c. 



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— 169 — 
Imperfect. 



N'namihob plachmon. 
K'namihob (fee. ^ 
Wnamihobani. ^ 
N'namihonnob &c. 
K'namihowob &c. 
Wnamihowobani -^ 



I saw the frenchman, 
^hou sawest &c. 
He saw &c. 
We saw &c. 
You saw &c. 
They saw &c. 



Past definite. 



N'namihoob pastoni. 
K'namihoob &;C. 
Wnamihobani ^ 
N'namihonoob &:C. 
K'namihowob &c. 
Wnamihowobani ^ 



I saw the american. 
Thou sawest &c. 
He saw &c. 
We saw &c. 
You saw &c. 
They saw &c. 



Past IndefinUe, 



N'kizi namiho iglismon. 



K'kzi namiho &c. 
W'kizi namiho ^ 
N'kizi mamihonna (fee 
K'kizi namihowo (fee. 
W'kizi namihowo ^ 



I have seen the english- 
man. 
Thou hast seen (fee. 
He has seen (fee. 
We have seen (fee. 
You have seen (fee. 
They have seen (fee. 

Pluperfect. 



N'kizi memihob a le- 
mon. 
K'kizi namihob (fee. 



I had seen the german. 
Thou hadst seen (fee. 



* Say : w'namihdbaai, w'namihdwdbani plachmdna ; — 
pastonia. 

* Say : w'kizi namihO, — namihdw6 iglismdna. 



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— m — 



Wkizi mamihobaiii ^ 

N'kizi namihoanob &c. 
K'kizi namihowob &c. 
Wkizinamihowobani ^ 



He had seen the Ssc. « 



N'namihoji kaptin. 

K'namchoji &c. 
Wnamhoji ^ &c. 
N'namihomaji &c. 
K'namihowoji &c. 
Wnamihowoji ^ 



We had seen &c. 
Yam, had seen dz;c. 
They had seen &c. 

Future. 

I shall or will see 

captain. 
Thou wilt see &c. 
He will see Ac. 
We shall see &c. 
You will see &c. 
They will see *^tc. 



the 



Second Future. 



noji- 



N'namihoji kizi 

nbizonhowad. 
E'namihdji kizi &^c. 
Wnamihoji kizi t 
N'namihomaji kizi &c. 
K'namihowoji kizi &c. 
W'namihowoji kizi noji 

nbizonhowaliji. 



I shall or will have seen 

the doctor. 
Thou wilt have seen &c. 
He will have seen &c. 
We shall have seen &c. 
You will have seen &c. 
They will have seen&c. 



alemdna 



* Say : w'kizi namih6bani, namihdwdbani, 
w'namihdji» w'namihowdji, kaptina. 
t W'natnih6ji kizi noJi-nbizonhowalijL 



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— m — 

Conditional Mood. 



Present. 



N'namihoba soghe- 

bad. 
Wnamirhoba.^ 
N'namihdiinaba dec. 
K'namihowoba &c. 
Wnamihowoba.^^ 



I should see the inn- 
keeper. 
He would see &c. 
We should see &c. 
You would see &c. 
They would see &e. 



Past. 



N*namih6bba notkua- 

ag. 
Wnamih6baniba.t 
N'namihonnobba &c. 
K'namihowobba &:c. 
Wnamihowobaniba t 



I should have seen the 

pilot. 
He would h. seen &c. 
We should h. seen &c. 
You would h. seen &c. 
They would h. seen &c. 

The remaining Moods and tenses are to be 
conjugated as in the indefinite conjugation. 



* W'namihdba, w'namih6w6ba, soghehaliji ; 

t W'namihdbaniba, w'namihdwobaniba noikuaagu 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



— la— 



ff**'* 



coxirGAnox. 

e im^imimmfe objecirre Tefa. aamtoriir, to see 
Ix:::::ATrrr Mood. 



Praemi. 



X'namiio wigwcm- 
'Xamito Ac 
K'namitobena «cc. 
K'namitoba A<r. 
^Namitoak Jrc 



I aee a lionse. 
He soes A:C. 
WeseeAc. 
You see &€. 
^Thev Bee &c. 



Imperfed. 

N'namitob mdawagen 
^amitob Jkc. 
N'namitobenob irc. 
K'namitobob hc, 
'Namitobanik &c. 



I saw a flag. 

He saw jm^. 
, We saw fee. 
j Yon saw &c. 
, They saw &c. 

Pa5f definite, 

N'namitoob odana. 
'Namiix>b Ac. 
N'namitobenoob &c. 
K'namitoboob Ac. 
'Namitobanik Ac. 



I saw a city, village. 
He saw &c. 
We saw Ac. 
You saw AC. 
They saw ac. 

Past -- .Indefinite, 



N'kizi namito awighi- 

^an. 
'Kizi namito Ac. 
N'kizi namitobena Ac. 
K'kizi namitoba ac. 
'Kizi namitoak ac. 



I have seen a book, 

a deed. 
He has seen ac. 
We have seen ac. 
You have seen Ac. 
They have seen ac. 



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— m — 



Pluperfect 



N'kizi namitob ktolag w 
'Eazi namitob. 
N'kizi namitobenob. 
K'kizi namitobob. 
'Kizi namitobanik. 



I had seen a ship. 
He had seen &c. 
We had seen &c. 
You had seen &:c. 
They had seen&c. 



Future. 



N'namitoji kebahodwi- 

gamigw. 
'Namitoji. 
N'namitobenaji. 
K'namitobaji. 
'Namitoakji. 



I shall or will see a jail. 

He will see &c. 
We shall see dec. 
You .will see dec 
They will see &c. 



N'namitoji kizi aiami- 

hawigamigw. 
'Namitoji kizi. 
N'namitobenaji kizi. 
K'namitobaji kizi. 
'Namitoakji kizi. 



Second Future. 



I shall have seen a 

church. 
He will have seen &c. 
We shall have seen &c. 
You will have seen &c. 
They will h. seen &c. 



Conditional Mood. 
Present. 



N'namitoba, sibo. 

'Namitoba. 

N'namitobenaba. 

K'namitobaba. 

'Namitoakba. 



I should see a river. 
He would see &c. 
We should see &c. 
You would see &c. 
They would see &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



— m — 



N'namitobba nebes. 

'Namitobba. 

N 'namitobenobba. 

K'namitobobba. 

'NamitobanikbR . 



Past. 

I Bhotild h. seen a lake. 
He would have s. &c. 
We should h. seen &c. 
Tou would h. seen &c. 
They would h. seen &c. 



Imperative Mood. 



Namito. 

Namitoj. 

Namitoda. 

Namitogw. 

Namitodij. 



See (thou.) 
Let him see. 
Let us see. 
See (ye or you.) 
Let them see. 



Subjunctive Mood. 



Present. 



N'namiton. 

Wnamiton. 

N'namitonana. 

K'namitono. 

Wnamitono. 



N'namitonaza. 

Wnamitonaza. 

N'namitonanossa. 

K'namitonossa. 

Wnamitonossa. 



That may see. 
That he may see. 
That we may see. 
That you may see. 
That they may see. 



Imperfect, 



That I might see. 
That he might see. 
That we might see. 
That you might see. 
That they might see. 



Past. 

Kizi n'namiton. | That I may have seen. 

&c., after the present, commencing by kizi. 



Digitized by 



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~m — 



Pluperfect 

Kizi n'namitonaza. | That I might have seen. 

&c., after the imperfect, commencing by kizi. 

CONJUaATION OF THE INANIMATE 
OBJECTIVE VERB, 

Namitdzik, to see. 

(Finite Conjugation.) 

Indicative Mood. 

Present, 

N'namiton paskhigan. I see the gun. 

N'namitonana &c. We see &;c. 

K'namitono &c. You see &c. 

Wnamitono &c. They see ifcc. 

Imperfect 



N'namitonab saguolhi- 

gan. 
N'namitonanob &c. 
K'namitonanob &c. 
K'namitonob &c. 
Wnamitonob &c. 



I saw the ramrod. 

We saw &c. 

You saw &c. 
They saw &c. 



This tense is also used for the past definite. 
Past Indefinite, 



N'kizi namiton adebo- 

lagw. 
N'kizi namitonana fee. 
K'kizi namitono &c. 
W'kizi namitono &c. 



I have seen the rifle. 

We have seen &c. 
You have seen &c. 
They have seen &c. 



*v 



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— 116 — 



N'kizi namitonab cha- 

wapnigan. 
N'kizi namitonanob &c 
E'kizi namitonob &c. 
W*kizi namitonob &c. 



Pluperfect 

I had seen the fish-hook 



We had seen &c. 
You had seen &c. 
They had seen &c. 



Future, 



N'namitonji chawa- 

niganakuam. 
N'namitonanaji &c. 
E'namitonoji &c. 
Wnamitonoji &:C. 



I shall see the fishing- 
rod. 
We shall see &c. 
You will see &c. 
They will see &:c. 



Second Future. 



N'namitonji kizi cha- 

wapniganatagw. 
N'namitonanaji kizi &c. 
K'namitonqji kizi &c. 
Wnamitonoji kizi &c. 



the 



I shall have seen 

fishing-line. 
We shall have seen &c. 
You will have seen &c. 
They will h. seen &:c. 



Conditional Mood. 



Present. 



N'namitonba aiamiha- 

wigamigw. 
N'namitonanaba &c. 
K'namitonoba &;C. 
W'namitonoba &c. 



I should see the church. 

We should see dec. 
You would see &c. 
They would see *c. 



Digitized by 



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i 



-m- 



Past. 

I should have seen the 

bell. 
We should have seen 

&c. 
You would have seen 

They would have seen 
&c. 

The remaining moods and tenses are to be con- 
jugated as in the indefinite conjugation. 

CONJUaATION OF THE PASSIVE VERB, 

Kazalmegwzimuk, to be loved. 

Indicative Mood. 



N'namitonabba saho- 

kuahigan. 
N'namitonanobba &c. 

K'namitonobba &c. 

Wnamitonobba &c. 



N'kezalmegwzi. 

'Kezalmegwzo. 

N' kezalmegw^ibena. 

K'kezalmegwziba. 

'Kezalmegwzoak. 



Present. 

I am loved. 
He is loved. 
We are loved. 
You are loved. 
They are loved. 

Imperfect. 

I was loved. 
He was loved. 
We were loved. 
You were loved. 
They were loved. 



N'kezalmegwzib. 

'Kezalmegwzob. 

N'kezalmegwzibenob. 

K'kezalmegwzibob. 

'Kezalmegwzobanik. 

This tense is also used for the past definite, 
indefinite and pluperfect tenses. 

12 



Digitized by 



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— 178 — 



Future. 
N'k^zalmegwziji. | I shall or will be loved. 

&c., after the present tense, affixing ji to the 
verb. 

Conditional Mood. 

Present. 

N'kezalmegwziba | I should be loved. 

&c., after the present tense, affixing ba to the 
verb. 

Past. 

N 'kezalmegwzibba. | I should have been loved 

&c., after the imperfect tense, affixing ba to the 
verb. 

Imperative Mood. 



Kezalmegwzi. 
Kezalmegwzij. 
Kezalmegwzida . 
Kezalmegwzigw. 
Kezalmegwzidij. 



Be (thou) loved. 
Let him be loved. 
Let us be loved. 
Be (ye or you) loved. 
Let them be loved. 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present, 



N'kezalmegwzin . 

"W'kezalmegwzin. 

N'kezalmegwzinana. 

K'kezalmegwzino. 

Wkezalmegwzino. 



That I may be loved. 
That he may &c. 
That we may &;c. 
That you may &c. 
That they may &c. 



Digitized by 



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— 119 — 



Imperfect- 



N'kezalmegwzinaza. 
Wkezalmegwzinaza. 
N' kazalmegwzinanossa 
K'kezalmegwzinossa. 
Wkezalmegwzinossa. 



That I might be loved. 
That he might &c. 
That we might &;c. 
That you might &:C 
That they might &c. 



This tense is used also for the two remaining tenses. 

EELATIVE CONJUaATION 

Of the verb Kazalmdmuky to love, affirmative 

form. 

(/.... thee, SfC.) 

Indicative Mood. 



K'kezalmel. 

E'kezalmelbena. 

K'kezalmegw. 

K'kezalmeffok. 

K'kezalmelba. 

K'kezalmebena. 

K'kezalmegwo. 

K'kezalmegwok. 



K'kezalmelob. 

E'kezalmelbenop. 

K'kezalmegob. 

K'kezalmegobanik. 

K'kezalmelbop. 

K'kezalm elbenop. 

K'kezalmegwop. 

K'kezalmegwobanik. 



Present. 

I love thee. 
"We love thee. 
He lovcMs thee. 
They love thee. 
I love you. 
We love you. 
He loves you. 
They love you, 
Imperfect. 

I loved thee. 
"We loved thee. 
He loved thee. 
They loved thee. 
I loved you. 
We loved you. 
He loved you. 
They loved you. 



This tense is used also for past definite, past 
indefinite jjid pluperfect tenses. 



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— 180 



{Neffalive, 

O'da k'kezalmelo. 

" k'kezalmeloppena. 

" k'kezalmegowi. 

** k'kezalmegowiak. 

" k'kezalmeloppa. 

" k'kezalmeloppena. 
O'da k'kezalmegowiw- 

w6. 
O'da k'kezalmegowiw- 

wok. 



^^Present) 

I don't love thee. 
We don't love thee. 
He does not love thee 
They don't love thee. 
I don't love you. 
We don't love you. 
He does not love you. 

They don't love you. 



(Imperfect.) 
O'da k'kezalmelob. | I did not love you. 

&c., after the aflBlrmative form, imperfect tense, 
commencing always by 6da. 

RELATIVE CONJUGATION 

Of the verb Kazalm6muky to love, affirmative 
form. 

{Thou... me, SfC.) 

Indicative Mood. 



Present. 



K'kezalmi. 

K'kezalmiba. 

N'kezalmegw. 

N'kezalmegok. 

K'kezalmibena. 

K'kezalmibena. 

N'kezalmegonna. 

N'kezalmegonnawak. 



Thou lovest me. 
You love me. 
He loves me. 
They love me. 
Thou lovest us. 
You love us. 
He loves us. 
They love us. 



Digitized by 



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— 181 — 
Imperfect- 



K'kezalmib. 

K'kezalmibop. 

N'kezalmegob. 

N'kezalmegobanik. 

K'kezalmibenop. 

K'kezalmibenop. 

N'kezalmegonnop. 

N' kezalmegonnobanik. 



Thou loTedst me. 
You loved me. 
He loved me. 
They loved me. 
Thou lovedest us. 
You loved us. 
He loved us. 
They loved us. 



This tense is used also for past dednile, past 
indefinite and pluperfect tenses. 

(Negative. — Present, ) 



O'da k'kezalmiw. 
" k'kezalmippa. 
'* n'kezalmegowi. 
" n'kezalmegowiak. 
" k'kezalmippena. 
" k'kezalmippena. 
*' n'kezalmegowin- 

na. 
" n'kezalmegowin- 

nawak. 



Thou doest n. love me. 
You don't love me. 
He does not love me. 
They don't love me. 
Thou doest not love us. 
You don't love us. 
He does not love us. 

They don't love us. 



Imperfect. 

O'da k'kezalmib. | Thou didst n. love me. 

&c. , after the affirmative form, imperfect tense 
commencing always by dda. 



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182 — 









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195 



SYNOPTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 

SHOWING THE NUMEROUS MODIFICATIONS OF THE 
ABENAKIS VERB. 

1. Transitive verb. — Namihdmuk, to see, animate, 
indefinite conjugation : 

I see, we see a beaver. 



N'namiho , n*namih6- 

bena tgiakwa. 
'Namiha, namihak 

tmakwa. 



He sees, they see a 
beaver, or beavers. 



2. Transitive verb. — Namihdmukj to see, animate, 
Jinite conjugation : 



N'namiho, n'namihon- 

na tmakwa ; 
Wnamiho, w'namiho- 

w6 tmakwa. 



I see, we see the bea- 
ver ; 

He sees, they see the 
beaver, or beavers. 



3. Transitive verb. — Namitdzikyto see, inanimate, 
indefinite conjugation : 



N^namito, n'namitobe- 

na wiguaol ; 
'Namito, 'namitoak 

wiguaol. 



I see, we see a bark 

canoe ; 
He sees, they see a 

bark canoe. 



4. Transitive verb. — Namitdzik, to see, inanimate, 
finite conjugation : 



N'namilon, n'namito- 
nana wiguaol ; 

Wnamiton, w'namito- 
no wiguaol. 



I see, we see the bark 

canoe ; 
He sees, they see the 

bark canoe. 



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— 196 



5. Transitive verb. — Pazdbimuk, to see, inde- 
finite conjugation : 



N'pazobi, n*paz6bibena 
nopahiwi ; 

Tazobo, 'pazoboak no- 
pahiwi. 



I see, we see far oflF ; 

He sees, they see far 
off. 



6. Intransitive verb. — Pazdbimuk, to i^ee, finite 
conjugation : 



N'pazobin, n'pazobi- 
nana ia nebessek ; 

Wpazobin, w'pazobino 
ia nebessek. 



I see, we see clear 
down to that lake. 

He sees, they see clear 
down to that lake. 



7. Passive verb. — Namiiguezimuk, to be seen : 

I am seen, we are seen. 



N'namiiguezi, n'nami 

iguezibena ; 
'Namiiguezo, 'namii- 

guezoak. 



He is seen, they are 
seen. 



8 Reflective verb — Namihozimvk, to see one 
eelf. 



N'namihozi n'namiho- 

zibena ; 
'Namihozo, 'namiho- 

zoak. 



I see myself, we see 

ourselves ; 
He sees himself, she 

sees herself, they see 

themselves. 



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— 191 — 

9. Oommtinicative verb. — Namihodimuk^ to see 
each other : 



N'namihorft'icwt/, 
'Namihodoak. 



"We see each other, 
They see each other, 



10. Causing verb.^ — Pazdbikhdmuk, va. to make 
see, (to restore a neighbour's sight), definite 
conjugation : 



N'pazobikho, n'pazobi- 
khonna manodgue- 
zit ; 

Wpaz6bikh6,w'paz6bi- 
khowo nanodguezi- 
liji. 



I make, we make the 
blind see, (we restore 
the blind man's 
sight) ; 

He makes, they make 
the blindman or 
bl^ndmen see. 



11. Frequentative verb. — Tdtagamdmuk, va. to 
strike repeatedly, (modification of the verb, 
tagamdmukf to strike,) animate, finite conju- 
gation : 



N'totagamo, n'totaga- 
monna ; n'totagamon- 
nawak ; 

Wtotagamo, w'tfitaga- 
mowo. 



I strike him, we strike 
him, repeatedly ; we 
strike, them repea- 
tedly ; 

He strikes^ him, they 
strike them, repea- 
tedly. 



* The causing: verb indicates that its subject causes some 
animate object to be in a certain circumstance, or to do 
something, v. g. n'kamguh I dive ;. n'kamguihhdy I make him 
dive. 



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— 198 — 

12. Frequentative verb. — Tddagaddzik, va, to 
strike repeatedly, {modification of the verb, 
tagaddzik, to strike,) inanimate, finite conju- 
gation ; 



N'totagadamen, n'tota- 

gadamenana ; 
W'totagadamen, w'to- 

tagadameno. 



I strike it, we strike it, 

repeatedly. 
He strikes it, they 

strike it, repeatedly. 



13. Working verb.^ — Abctznodakamuk, vn., to 
make baskets, derived from the substantive 
abaznoda^ basket. 



N*-d-abaznodaka, n'-d- 
abaznodakabena ; 

'Abaznodaka, 'abazno- 
dakak. 



I make baskets, v^e 
make baskets ; 

He makes baskets, 
they make baskets. 



14. Slow-performing verb. — ManncUokamuky vn., 
to work slowly, (1. modification of the verb 
alokamukj to work) : 



N*mannaloka,n'manna- 

lokabena ; 
N'mannawighiga,'man- 

nawighigak. 



I work, we work, 

slowly ; 
I write, they write, 

slowly. 



* This kind of verbs is called so, because they always indi- 
cate the doing of a work, that is, of the substantive from 
which it is derived, v. g. ogem, snow shoe : rC-d-dgemifca, I 
make snow shofes ; dwdif road : n'-d-divdika, I make a road. 



bvGoode 



— 199 — 

15. Quick-performing . verb. — Kazalokamuk, vn 
to work speedily (2. modification of the verb 
alokamuk, to work) : , 



N' keatiloka, n'kezaloka- 

bena ; 
N'kezawighiga, n'keza- 

wigbigabena. 



I work, we work, with 

celerity ; 
He writes, they write, 

fast. 



16. Neat working verb. — Pabakalokamuk, vn. to 
work neatly or carefully. (8. modification^ of 
the verb alokamuk, to work) : 



N'pabakaloka, n'paba- 

kalabena ; 
Tabakalokak. 



I work, we work, care- 
fully ; 
They work carefully. 



lY. Eough or coarse working verb.— ilft^wdg-wa- 
lokamuky vn. to work roughly, (4. modifi- 
cation of the verb alokamuk, to work) ; 



N'momogualoka, n'mo- 

mogualokabetia ; 
'Momoffualokak. 



I make, we make, rough 

or coarse work ; 
They make coarse work 



18. Conjunctive verb.— 1. Ntsalokamuk, to yvork 
two together ; 2. Kasalokamuk, to work 
with some others ; 3. Mdwalokamuk^ to per- 
form statute-labour or work many together, 
{three other modifi«ations of the verb alo- 
kamuk, to work) : 



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— 200 — 



1. N'nisalokabena nijia. 



2. N'kasaloka n'mitog- 
wes ta kedagik. 

3. N'mowalokabena or 
n'mowalokhedibena. 



I work with my brother, 

or, my brother and I 

work together. 
I work with my father 

and some others. 
We perform statuate- 

labour ; we all work 

together. 



19. Feigning verb. ^ — Akuamaisikdlzimuk, vn. 
to feign to be sick. (Modification of the 
verb akuamahimuk, to be sick). 



(N'-d-akuamalsi. 

N'-d-akuamalsikolzi 

'Aknamalsikolzoak. 



I am sick.) 

I feign to be sick. 

They feign to be sick. 



20. Reproaching verb. — WazOmeuaighigamuk, 
vn., to write too much, (so to hurt oneself 
in one way or other.) Modification of the 
verb awighigamuk, to write. 



N'ozomawighiga, n'ozo- 
mawighigabena. 



'Wzomagighigak. 



; write or wrote too 
much, we write or 
wrote too much (so 
that our sight is now 
weak.) 
'They write or wrote 
too much. 



This means also : they wrote a libellous article. 



* As in the Olchipwe Grammar, a verb of this kind represents 
always its subject doing something for show only, or by dissi- 
mulation. 



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~ 201 — 

21. Abundance verb. — Masalamghdzik, va. ma- 
salamghigamuk, vn. to write much, {viodi- 
fication of the verb, awtghdzik, v*., inani- 
mate, and awighigamuk, vn., to write. 



N'mesalawigham, 
n'mesalawighambe- 
na awighiganal. 

'Msalawigham, msal- 
awighamok awighi- 

N'mesalawighiga, 
n'mesalawighigabe- 
na ; 

'Msalawighiga 'msala- 
wighigak. 

(N'mesaladiali. 



I write, we write many- 
letters. 

He writes, they write 

many letters. 
I write much, we write 

much. 

He writes much, they 

write much. 
I made a good hunt.) 



22. Unipersonal-abundance verb. — This kind of 
verbs is formed from animate and inanimate 
substantives. No infinitive. 



(Moz, moose ;) mozika. 

{Pakesso, partridge ;) 

pakessoika. 
{Abazi tree ;) abazika. 
{Sata, blue-berry ;) sa- 

taika. 



There is plenty of 
moose. 

There is plenty of par- 
tridges. 

There are many trees. 

There is plenty of blue- 
berries. 



23. Unipersonal verb. — ^No infinitive. 



Soglon, soglonji. 
Pson, psonji. 



It rains, it will rain. 
It snows, it will snow. 



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— 202 — 

24. SabstantiVo verb. — Sandbaimuk, to be a 
man ; So^mdimiuk, to be a chief, derived 
respectively from : Sandba, a man, and 
Sdgmdj a chief. 



N' sanobai , n'sanobai- 
bena, sogmoibena ; 

'Sanobao, sogmoo, sog- 
mooak. 

(N'namasowi, 'namasoo, 
'namasooak. 



I am a man, we are 
men ; we are chiefs ; 

He is a man, he is a 
chief, they are chiefs. 

I am a fish, he is a 
fish, they are fish.) 



25. Adjective verb. — Wdbigimuk, to be white, 
derived from the adjective wdbiy white. 



N'w6bigi, wobigo, (w6- 

bi^n). 
Wobigoak, ( wobige- 

nol). 
N'wizowigi, wizowigo, 

'wizowigoak. 



I am white,he is white, 
(it is white) ; 

They are white, ( 

tmngs). 

I am yellow, he is 
yellow, they are yel- 
low. 



26. Possessive verbs. — Waddgemimukj to have 
snow shoes^wadolimukf to have a canoe,deriv- 
ed from substantives, in the possessive case, 
n'-d-dgem, my snow shoe ; n'dol, my canoe : 



N'odogemi, 'wdogemo, 
wdogemoak. 

N'odoli, 'wdolo, 'wdo- 
loak. 



I have snow shoes, he 
has snow shoes, they 
have snow shoes. 

I have a canoe, he has 
a canoe, they have a 
canoe or canoes. 



NoTK —These are not all the modifications which are to be 
observed in the Abenakis verb. 



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— 203 — 
MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS 

ON NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND VERBS. 

1. Remarks. — Nouns being either animate or 
inanimatBy it follows that there also animate and 
inanimate adjectives and verbs, which are made 
to agree with the nouns accordingly ; and these 
nouns have therefore their respective plural 
termination, which are : ak^ ik, ok and k^ for the 
animate, and, aZ, il, ol, and /, for the inanimate. 
See page 12. 

2. Remark. — G-enerally the diminutive nouns 
are formed by the addition of three different 
terminations, viz : 5, is, and sis : 

(1) Abazi, a tree ; ahaziSy a young troo ; sibo. a river, 
sibos^ a brook (or a narrow river). 

(2) Nebes or nbeSj a lake ; nebesis, a small lake or 
pond ; sibos, a brook ; sibosiSj a little brook ; loioSj some 
moat ; wiosis, a small piece of meat. 

(3) Koaj pine-tree ; koasiSj a young pine -tree ; abaz- 
noda, a basket; abaznodasis, a little basket; sogmd, a 
chief; sogmdsis, a small or youn^j chief. 

Nouns ending in ddj ad, at, change their tei mina- 
tion into dsid, asid, asit, respectively : nottahdd^ a 
butcher ; nottahdsid, a small or young butcher ; nojikkad 
a carpenter ; no/iMo^ic? a small or young carpenter; 
soghebat ; an inn keeper ; soghebasit, a small or young 
inn-keeper. 

Nbdatebit, a cook, makes : nodalebesit, a small or 
young cook ; notkuaag, a pilot ; notlcuaamosit, a small 
or young pilot. 

There is also the extreme diminutive, which is gene- 
rally expressed by the annexation of imis or simis to 
the noun ; as, nebesimis, a very small pond, a bog ; 
abaznodasimiSj a tiny little basket. 



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— 204 — 

3. Remark. — The present of the indicaiivei& 
often used for the future ; as : — 

Nliwezoda kedak alemahkamuky I will remove 
next week. (It ought to be : n'kwezodaji,..) 

Nmdjibena dguaga^ we will go away {leave) next 
spring. 

The past is also often expressed by the present ; as 
n'namihd Salemen tagwdgua, I have seen Salomon last 
fall ; rCnihldhena moz siguana, we have killed a moose 
last spring. (It ought to be : rCkizi nhldbena,.,) 

4. Eemakk. — Should and would are always 
expressed by ba aflB.xed to the verb, (see congu- 
gation) ; but when should is nsed for ought, 
then should is expressed by achowiba, the 
equivalent of ought, placed between the pro- 
noun and the verb ; as : 

J^-d-achowiba majimiwi kdemdgabiidnna kademdksessit^ 
we should always asssist the poor. 

The potential is expressed by kiziba, placed before 
the verb ; as thus : n'kiziba mezenemenana, we might 
have it (get it) ; kldziba dbankawd, you might pay him. 

5. Remark. — The interrogative conjugation 
has been omitted in this book, because any 
sentence, be it affirmative or negative, may become 
interrogative, if only you change the usual 
affirmative tune into an interrogative, or, in 
writing, end the sentence by the interrogation 
point (?) ; as in the following sentences : 

K'd-awigham awighigan, you write a letter ; 
K'daioigham awighigan ? do you wi'ite a letter ? 
N'mdjibena Sandaga, we will start Sunday ; 
Nmdjibena Sandaga f shall we start Sunday ? 
O'da k'-d-agakimziw, you do not study ; 
O'da k''&agakxmziw f don't you study ? 



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ETYMOLOGY 

OF INDIAN NAMES BY WHICH AEE DESIGN- 
ATED GEETAIN TEIBES, TOWNS, 
^ EIYEES, LAKES, ETC., ETC. 



Before commencing this trealise, it would 
perhaps be well to mention that all these names, 
either in Abenakis,Cree or other tribal languages, 
which now designate so many localities, moun- 
tains, rivers, etc., have been so much disfigured 
by the Whites, who not understanding these 
words, pronounced them in the best way they 
could and spelled them accordingly, but, in 
most cases, with such incorrectness that they 
have rendered many of them altogether incom- 
prehensible, and thereby impossible to discover 
their true signification. 

Abenakis, (Abenakis), from : " Wobanaki, " 
land or country of the East. This name 
comes from : lodban, daybreak, and, H, 
earth, land, or rather, aid, which is a term 
employed in composition for, land, ground, 
region. Wdbanaki, Abenakis, means also : 
an Indian from where the daylight comes. 
The plur. makes : zadbanakiak. 



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— 206 — 

ACHIGAN, probably from : Manashigan, (Cree), 
or M6nazigan, (Abenakis), a fish that the 
French people have named " achigan ", 
and the English, " black bass. " 

Alsigontegw, (Abenakis), is the name given 
to the River St-Francis, by the Indians of 
this tribe. It means : river abounding in 
shells ; hence the modem name : Alsigdn- 
tegwiak.the Indians of St-Francis. 

Alnobai Menahan, (Abenakis), Indian Island, 
is an island owned by the Abenakis, situated 
in the Eiver St-Francis, two miles below the 
Indian village. The whites call that island : 
" He Ronde," round island. 

Amonoosuc, (Abenakis), from, O'manosek, the 
fishing ground, or better, the small or narrow 
fishing river. Some pretend that it comes 
from : pagdnozik, at the walnut-tree, from 
pagdnozi, walnut-tree. 

Annapolis River ; Tawapskak, flowing out 
between rocks. 

Aroostook, (Abenakis), from WalastegWj shal- 
low river, or perhaps, Wlastegiv, good river. 

AsAWABiMOSWAN, (Cree), where hunters watch 
for the elk. 

Attakapas, probably from : Adagdbas, rogue, 
roguish man. This word is sometimes used 
in figurative sense, and then it means : 
man-eater. 



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— 207 — 

Attikamigues, (Cree), for aUikamekj-white fisi*. 

Arthabaska, (Abenakis), from, albataika, or 
rather, albataska, there are many putrid 
water places or swamps, from : albata or 
albatas, putrid water, and ka or tka^ an 
Abenakis suffix marking abundance. 

Batiscan, (in Abenakis, " Padiskon ") probably 
for. Baptist's camp. Padoskan, signifies : one 
makes a boat (or boats.) 

Baskanegan, (Abenakis), " Poskenigan, " 
coffin, (poskeniganiko, a grave yard). It was 
likely a place where the Indians, in old 
times, used to bury their dead. Burial was 
performed by placing a hewed tomb upon 
a scaffold in which were placed the remains 
of the deceased, with all is hunting accou- 
trements, ammunution and dried meat. 

Becancour, " Wolinaktegw," the river which 
has long turns, or rather which causes delay 
by its windings. 

Belceil Mountain, (St-Hilaire) ; Wigwoma- 
densis, (sis) a diminutive term : Mountain 
resembling to (or in the form of) a wigwam. 
Hence the local term : " Wigwomade- 
sisek," which is the name given to the city 
of St-Hyacinthe by the Abenakis Indians. 

Black River, Mkazawi Sibo, (black river). 



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— 208 — 

4Jlue Mountains, Yar. Co., N. S., named in 
Abenakis Waldwadenik, (bl. mts.), are called 
in Micmac : Cookwejook, the spectres. 

Bear Island, (Lake Winnipesaukee,) Awasoswi 
Menahan. 

Canada, from, Kanata, (Iroquois), a collection of 
tents or huts. 

Oanso, (Micmac), camsok, opposite a high bluff. 

Cascumpek ; Caskamkek, (Micmac), a bold steep 
sandy shore. 

Cape Mispec : Masbaak, (Abenakis) ; Mespaaky 
(Micmac), over-flowed. 

Chicoutimi, (Abenakis), Saguitemik, where it is 
deep by the act of the sea tide ; Saffuitema, 
it is deep by the act of the tide. 

Chawinigan, (Abenakis), Azawinigan, bold- 
steep (roof-like) portage. Some pretend 
that it is derived from ^hdwan or Sdwan, 
(Cree) south, and, onigan, portage. 

Cohasset, probably for : koasek, the young 
pine-tree. Koa, means pine-tree. Koas is the 
diminutive, and, koasek^ the local term. 

Cococache, (Abenakis), for, kokokhas, an owl ; 
the local term : kokokhasek. This is the 
name of a lake on the St Maurice Eiver, 
about 150 miles above Three Eivers, which 
is Bo called on account of a little mountain, 
at the East-end of the lake, the form of 
which, especially the extreme top, resembles 
an owl. 



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_ 209 — 

Connecticut, (Abenakis), for : Kwenitegta (or 
Kwumtukw)y long river. The local term, 
is : Kwenitegok, 

CAUaHNAWAGA, (Iroquois), for, kahnawake, at 
the falls, from : ka, where, ohnawa, current, 
swift current, falls, cascade, and ke, which 
marks : 1^ the duality and plurality ; 2^ the 
presence of a preposition, wihch, in many 
instances, (in the Indian languages,) is 
represented by the termination.. 

CoHOES, probably for : koas, young pine, or 
perhaps koasek, at the young pine-tree. 

CooKSAKEE, (Abenakis), from, skok or skog, snake, 
and, aki, or ki, land : snake land. 

CoATicooK, (Abenakis), comes from the local 
term : Koatteg'ok, at the Pine River, 
derived from : Koa, pine-tree, ttegw, river, 
(in composition only), and the suffix ok 
which has the force of either of these 
prepositions : a/, to^ ofy fronts on, in. 

Chenaldu-Moine is designatedby the Abenakis 
Indians under the name of " Poltegw, " 
which means : PauVs River. 

Chamocha, a clown ; a masked man. 

Dacotah, (Ind.), leagued ; allied, the common 
name of the confederate Sioux tribes. (iVa- 
tional Stand Dictionary, 537.) 

Dahlonega, (Ind.), place of gold. (Nat Stand, 
Dictionary.) 
14 



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— 210 — 

Damariscotta, (Ind.) alewife place. {N. Stand. 
Diaiionary) 

Devil's Rock ; Madahdndoapskw, (Abenakis), 
Mundoopscoochk, (Micmac), devirs rock. 

Durham, (L'Avenir,) is called by the Abenakis : 
Kwanahomoik : where the turn of the river 
makes a long point. 

Esquimaux, a tribe that the Abenakis name : 
Askimo, plnr. askimoak, eaters of raw flesh. 

Erie, said to be the name of a fierce tribe exter- 
minated by the Iroquois. (National Stand. 
Dictionary,) 

EscouMlNS, (Cree), from iskomin, from isko till 
there, and min, berry, that is, there are 
berries till such a place {Gramm. of the 
Otchipwe language, 298 ) 

Etchemin, (Ochipwe) from tyekomin, from iyeko, 
sand, and min, berry, or sand-berries, so 
the Otchipw Indians call raspberries. 

Ford Ellis, itf^rfat^aaA:, (Micmac), Paskategwak^ 
(Abenakis), where the river branches off. 

The Falls, Cdpskw, (Micmac), Panjahldk (Abe- 
nakis), a cascade. Pdntegw means equally, 
cascade, falls. 

The G^RAND Falls, Kchi Pdntegtv, (Abenakis), 
grand falls ; local term : Kchi Pdntegok, at 
the great falls. 

French Eiver, Plachmdni Sibo. (Abenakis.) 



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— 211 — 

Five Islands, NankU m^negool, (Micmac) ; 
Nonnenagaky (Abenakis) at the five islands ; 
(idiomatic : ndnnenagol, the five islands, lit : 
ndnnowigil menahanol). 

Fox Island, Wdkvjsesi menahauj (Abenakis). In 
local term : Wdktvesi menahanok, 

G-ATINEAU River ; Maddbajoak, (Abenakis), the 
river which flows rapidly into another. 

Q-RAND Lake, N. B., Kchi nebes, (Abenakis) ; 
T^l^gadik, (Micmac), camping ground. 

Grand Manan ; manan is probably from, 
manahan, (Abenakis), island, which, being 
connected with " grand, " makes : *^ grand 
island. " 

Grand River is, in Abenakis, Kchi sibOy (lit. 
meaning.) 

Grindstone Bank, keeddk&nuk, (Micmac), 
kitaddganapskw, (Abenakis), whetstone rock. 

Hayti, (Ind.) high land. {Nat Stand, dictionary.) 

Heron Island ; (Abenakis), Kaskoimenahan. 

HousATONic, (Abenakis), for awasadenik^ beyond 
the mountain ; over the hill. This is from : 
aioasi... beyond, aden, mountain or hill (only 
in composition), and z%, one of the Abenakis 
suffixes which gives the name in local 
term. 

Illinois, from ilini, (Algonquin), man, and the 
French addition ois, for tribe or people, or 
rather from,iiiniwokjmen or " band of men". 



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_ 212 — 

Iowa, the French form of an Indian word, 
signifying " the drowsy " or " the sleepy 
ones " ; a Sioux name of the Pahoja or 
" Grray snow tribe, " (Nat. Stand, Dictionary.) 

IglismoNKI, (Abenakis), England, [lit ; English- 
man's land.) 

Illodakki, (Abenakis), Ireland, (lit : Irishman's 
land.) 

lOLisMoN, (Abenakis), Englishman ; English 
people. The Eaglish militia, makwsawat, 
(lit. signification : who wears a red uni- 
form.) 

Kaanawaoi, the name by which the Abenakis 
designate the Indian Reserve of the Iroquois 
tribe, known under the name of Gaughna- 
waga. 

Kaanawagihnono, (Abenakis), the Iroquois 
tribe of Caughnawaga. 

Kamoukaska, probably from, ska mdraskua (old 
Abenakis), ska mdlaskuu, (modern expres- 
sion), there is some white birch bark, or 
perhaps for : there are some white birch 
trees. 

Kansas, probably from : Kanosas, which means, 
willow. 

Katahdin, (Abenakis), for Kfaden, the big or 
high mountain. 

Kearsabge, probably from : Kesarzet, (old Abe- 
nakis), the proud or selfish. 



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— 213 — 

KeN^bec, (Abenakis), for, Kinebek, or Kinebak, 
large lake, or again, deep river. 

KiWAKUAi SiBO, Cannibal River, a branch of the 
St-Maurice River. Kiwakua, (Abenakis), 
man-eater. 

KwANoBAGNAGAK, or Kwandbagnagastk, (dimi- 
nutive), is the name given by the Abenakis 
to a little island owned by them, on the 
river St-Francis, known under the name of 
" L'lle-a-rAil. " It means : long narrow 
island. 

Kenosha, probably for : Kwenoza, (Abenakis), 
pike. 

KwENOSASEK, (Abenakis idiom), means : at the 
pike river. 

Kentucky, likely for, Kwenataga, it is long. 

KoATTEGOK, (Abenakis), local term of koattegio, 
pine river. See Coaticook. 

MadoBALODENIK, an idiomatical expression by 
which the Abenakis designate the city of 
Three Eivers, after the former name of the 
Eiver St Maurice, which was : Lodenoi 
sibo. It was so called, because in old times, 
when the hunting territories were all 
devided among the Indians, this river, from 
its mouth up to a certain distance, belonged 
to anindian named Lodeno. The expression 
maddbalodeniky from : mad6ba^**ik, which 
comes or flows in, and the interposition of 
loden, an abbreviation of Lodeno, means : the 
outlet or confluence of the River Lodeno. 



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_ 214 — 

Mackinaw, probably from : mikenakw, (Abe- 
nakis), a tortoise ; also, a species of water- 
bug. 

Maccan Eiver ; Mddgan, (Micmac), fishing 
place. 

Madawaska ; matawaska, (Otcbipwe), maddbas- 
kika, (Abenakis), the mouth of a river where 
there are grass and hay. The local term is 
viaddbaskikak. 

Makuapskasik, (Abenakis), is the name of a short^ 
portage, on the St Francis Eiver, above the 
Abenakis village, which means : at the 
red rock. 

Mamphrema(K)G, (Abenakis), for, Mamlaio- 
-iagakj signifies ; long and large sheet 
of water, from: mam/ai^..., a prefi^x which 
denotes largeness or abundance, baga, a 
particule denoting water, and, k, which 
marks that the name is given in local 
term. 

Maskikowogamak, (Abenakis), the lake the 
banks of which are covered with grass or 
hay. 

Maskuaanagasik, (Abenakis), the diminutive 
of maskuaanagak : the little birch- trees 
island, or simply, the birch island. This is 
the name of a little island on the Ri^er St 
Francis. 

Massachusetts, either from : " Massajosets, " 
the tribe of the great hill, or, Msafosek, at 
the great hill or region of the great hills. 



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— 215 — 

Manhattan, (Abenakis), from : menahanitan, an 
island formed by the current or the tide. 

Manitoline, for : manito w-d-ain, the spirit 
(manito) is there, or, manito Tile, (half Indian 
and French), the manito island. 

Mantawa or Matawin, (Abenakis), junction of 
two rivers. 

Mereimack, from the old Abenakis, Morddemak, 
deep river. 

MiCHiLiMACKiNAC, (Abenakis), probably from : 
msalmikenakw, there is plenty of turtles. 

Milwaukee, (Abenakis), probably for : milwai 
kif fertile or productive land. 

Megantic, (Abenakis), for : namakdttik, or 
rather, namagwditik, (old Abenakis), which 
means, lake trout place. 

MisTASSiNi, the big stone. 

Matapediao ; (Abenakis), maddbajoak, a river 
flowing roughly into another. 

Malpeque, (Micmac) mdkpddk, said to mean, 
big bay. 

Mississipi, great or grand river. 

MoNADNOCK, according to the Abenakis ortho- 
graphy, mdniadenokf or mdnadenok^ (ellipti- 
"^ cal), signifies : at the silver mountain, from : 
mdni, silver, aden^ mountain, and the ter- 
mination ok, which has the force of either 
of these prepositions : at, to, of, from, on. 



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— 216 — 

MissiSQUOl, comes from: Masipskoik, (Abenakis), 
where there is flint. 

MoosKHEAD Lake, is called in Abenakis : Mozo- 
dupi Nebes, whicli is the literal meaning of 
the English name. 

Manawan (Lake), eggs gathering place. In 
fact, that lake being the resort of gulls and 
loons, the hunters use to gather lots of eggs 
around the little islands. 

Nashua is said to mean : between (the rivers). 
Between is expressed in Abenakis by : 
nsawij nsawiwi or nansawkui. 

NiKATTEGW or JSfikontegw, (Abenakis), means : 
first branch, or again, the outrunning stream 
or river. This is the Indian name of a 
channal, at the lower end of the Abenakis 
Indian Reserve of St- Francis called by the 
French people '' Chenal Tardif.'' 

Niagara, probably from, Ohniara, (Iroquois), the 
neck (connecting Lake Erie with Iske 
Ontario). 

Namagwottik, (Abenakis), place abounding in 
lake trout. {See Megantic). 

O'BAMAS, a term by which the Abenakis Indians 
designate the " Eiviere du Loup" (en 
haut), means : opposite course or winding. 
This name has been given on account of 
the great winding which commences a 
little bellow Hunters town Mills. See plan of 
the St-Maurice Territory, published in 1857. 



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— m — 

O'BAMASis, the diminutive of O'bamas, is the 
name given by the Abenakis to the ** River 
Yamachiche. " 

O'bomkaik is the name by which la ** Pointe- 
du-Lac " is designated by the Abenakis. It 
means : the white sandy point. 

0'nkobaGx\k, (Abenakis,) lake lengthened or 
extended after a strait. 

Oneida, (Ind.), people of the beacon stone 
{National Stand, Dictionary). 

Ontaeio, from Onontee, " a village on a moun- 
tain, " the chief seat of the Onondagas, 
(N, S, Dictionary). 

Oswego, the Onondaga name for Lake Ontario, 
{N, S. Dictionary), 

OuiATCHOAN, (Orree), from, wdwiydtj'itvan, or 
wayawitjiivan, currant coming out. 

Ottawa, perhaps from, otonwa, (Iroquois), 
beavers lodge, - muskrat's lodge. The 
Otchipwe grammar says, however, that it 
is an abbreviation of : ottawakay, his ear, or, 
otawask, and watawask, bull-rushes, because 
along the river there are a great many of 
those bull-rushes, while A. L. Burt's N. S. 
Dictionary states that it means, traders. 

Passumpsic, probably from : pasdmkasik, (Abe- 
nakis), a dyninutive term which means : 
river which has a clear sandy bottom. 



L 



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— 218 — 

PawCATUCK, (Abenakis), shaking river, or per- 
haps from, pdgwkaiegWy the shallow river. 

Pawtucket, probably from, pawtagit^ (Abena- 
kis), who shakes himself^ which shakes 
itself: a figurative sense applied sometimes 
to falls. 

PiCHOUX, (Abenakis), |?62o, (Cree), pisiw, Ijmx. 

PiTHiOAN, (Abenakis), the entry, inlet, opening, 
of a river or lake. 

PiTHiOANiTEGW is the name by which the 
Abenakis designate the Eiver Nicolet. 

Pemigewasset, (Abenakis), comes from : Pami- 
jowasik, diminutive of pamijowak, which 
means, the swift or rapid current ; pamijo- 
waiiky the narrow and shallow swift cur- 
rent. 

P^CATACtuA, (Ind.), great deer river. {Nat. 
Stand, Dictionary), 

Potomac, (Ind.), place of the burning pine, 
resembling a council-fire. (N. S. Dictionary). 

Penobscot, probably from : pamapskak, (Abe- 
nakis), the rocky place, among the rocks, 
or perhaps from : panapskak, the steep 
rocky place. 

Quebec, from the old Abenakis, Kebhek or 
Kebeky means : obstructed current ; where 
it is narrow or shut. 

QuiNEBAUG, (Abenakis), for, Kioanbaaky long 
pond. 



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— 219 — 

EiMOUSKi, (old Abenakis), Aremoski, (modern), 
Alemoski, means,* dog's land, from : aremos 
or alemosj dog, and, ki, land or country. 

Sagaswantegw, half Algonquin and Abenakis, 
sagaswa, (Alg.), he is smoking, and, tegw, 
(Ab.). river, given in figurative sense, for : 
still river, that is, river where one has 
ample time to smoke. 

Saeanac (Ind.) is said to mean : river that 
flows under rock. 

Saratoga, (ind.), place of the miraculous water 
in a rock. (NaL Stand, Dictionary/), The 
Abenakis Indians designate this place by 
nebizonbik, a local term, which means : at 
the mineral spring, or rather, at the physi- 
cal water. 

Saskatchewan, (Cree), saskijoan^ (Abenakis) : 
rapid current. 

ScHOODic, probably from the old Abenakis, 
skudeky at the fire, or, burnt lands, (from 
large fires about 16Y5). 

Sebago, probably from, sobagoo, (Abenakis), it 
is sea, or, it resembles a sea. 

Seneca, (Abenakis), senika, means ; there are 

many rocks, it is rocky, from : sen, rock, 

stone, and ika, an addition which marks 

, abundance. (Mdni, money ; mdniika, there 

is plenty of money.) 

SisiKWAi Menahan, (Abenakis), rattlesnake 
island. 



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— 220 — 

SisiQUOi, perhaps for, sisikwa^ rattlesnake. 

Skowheoan, (Abenakis), * from skuahigen, or 
skwahtgetiy it is pointed. 

Saco, is believed to come from sokSai, (old 
Abenakis), which means ; from the South 
side ; Southern. Hence the name sokiaki, 
(modern, sokoki), Southern country ; South- 
ern people, or better, Indians from the South. 

Saguenay River is called by the Micmacs 
"• Ktadoosok ", flowing between two high 
steep cliffs. 

St John, N. B., (Micmac), Minawgis, where 
they collect the dead seals. 

SuNCOOK, (Abenakis), from senikok, at the rocks. 

Tennessee, (Ind.), river of the Big Bend (N. S. 
Dictionary.) 

Tadoussac, (Cree), from, totosak plural of t6t6f, 
woman's breast pap. (Otchip. gramm,) 

Temiscouata, it is deep every where, from, 
timiw, it is deep in the water, and, tskwatdm 
without end (Otchip. gramm,) 

Umbagog, (Ind.) clear lake, shallow. (N. S. 
Dictionary/) 

Wachusett, (Abenakis) from, wajoSj a mountain 
(of middling height), and the prepositive ter- 
mination eky which represents the prepo- 
sition at : at the mountain. 



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— 221 — 

Wabishtonis, (OcIl), from tvabisldnis, diminu- 
tive of wabistdn, a marten. 

Washita, (Western Indian langtiage), said to 
mean : a buck, a male deer. 

Wassabaastegw, { Abenakis) white river ; clear 
water stream. 

WdamoGANASPskok, (Abenakis), a name by 
which is designated a rapid on the River 
St-Francis, which means : at the pipe rock. 

Wdupsek, (Abenakis), an expression signifying : 
a scalping spot, at the crown. 

WlGWoM, wigwSlm, a house, a lodge. 

Winnipeg, unpure or turbid water, salt water. 

WiNNEPESAUKEE Of Winnipisiogee (Abenakis), 
comes from : Wiwininehesaki^ lake in the 
vicinity of which there are other lakes 
and ponds, or perhaps better, lake region, 
from : wiwni, abbreviation of wiwniwU 
around, in the vicinity, nebes, lake, pond, 
and, a&t, land, rigion, territory. 

WiNOOSKi, (Abenakis), from winos^ onion, and, Art, 
land : Winoski^ onion land. 

Wawobadenik, (Abenakis), White Mountains, 
N. H. The " Mount Washington '' is called 
in Abenakis "Kodaakwajo,'* the hidden 
mountain, so called because in cloudy 
weather the top of that mountain, owing 
to its great elavation, is, in fact, always 
hidden by the clouds. 



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— 222 — 

"WisCASSUT, is said to mean, at the yellow pines : 

Washita, (Western Indian language), said to 
mean, a buck, a male deer. 

Wassabaastegw, (Abenakis) white river, clear 
water stream. 

Wabaskoutiyunk (Lake) is said to mean in 
Montagnais : where there is some whitish 
grass or hay. 



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SIGNIFICATION 

OF THE NAMES OF THE MONTHS. 



January ; Alamikos ; 

Ne\v-yeai''s greeting month. 

February ; Piaddagos ; 

Boughs-shedding month. 

March ; Mozokas ; 

Moose-hunting month. 

April ; Sogahkas ; 

Sugar-making month. 

May ; Kikas ; 

Planting month. 

June ; Nokkahigas ; 

Hoeing month. 

July ; Temaskikos ; 

Hay-making month. 

August ; Temezdwas ; 

Harvesting month. 

September ; Skamonkas ; 

Indian corn-reaping month. 

October ; Penibagos ; 

Leaf-falling month. 

November ; Mzatanos ; 

Ice-forming month. 

December ; Pebonkas ; 
Winter month. 



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CONTENTS 



Page 

Preface 5 

The Alphabet ". 1 

The Vowels 1 

The Diphthongs., 7 

Syllables in progressive scale 8 

Words and Syllables , 9 

Key to the pronunciation, ^... 10 

Sound of vowels 11 

Sound of diphthongs 12 

PAET PIEST 

Of God's attributes 13 

Of the Heavens 14 

The elements and things relating to them 15 

Meteors, ships, &c 16 

The seasons ^ 18 

The months , 18 

The days of the week 19 

Division of time p, 19 

Mankind, kindred, &c ...* 20 

Functions, habits, &c 23 

15 



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— 226 — 

Page 

Sickness and deseage 24 

Parts of the body 24 

Wearing apparel 26 

Of the table, meals and dishes 28 

Beverages 30 

Pmits and fruit-trees 31 

Forest-trees, flowers, &c 31 

Mechanical arts&c 33 

Of the sea 34 

Domestic animals, wild quadrupeds, bii'ds, furs, 

and skins 35 

Fishes, reptiles and insects 39 

Of the country and the objects met with there. ... 40 

Money and coins 41 

Weights and measures 42 

Com and vegetables... 42 

Farming implements, carriages, hai'ness, etc 43 

Colours, painting, &c 44 

The Cardinal points, &c 46 

Hunting and fishing outfit, etc... 41 

Ecclesiastical and secular dignities 49 

Games, recreations, etc 49 

Names of cities, villages, rivers, countries, nations, 

etc 51 

Names of persons which differ with both, the 

English and French orthography 54 

Holidays and festivals 56 

Substantives having no singular 57 

The personal pronouns 68 

The possessive pronouns .rr 59 



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— 22T — 

PAET SECOND. 

Page 

Elements of the Abenakis conversation 61 

Use of the verb wajdndmuk, wajondzik, to have, in 

the affirmative form 62 

Vocabulary of nouns 63 

Use of the verb wajdndmuk^ wajdndzik, to have, in 

the negative form 64 

Adjectives —simple and invariable 65 

The above Adjectives prolonged by syllables repre- 
senting the verb to be^ and joined to nouns 

and verbs, &c 66 

Adjectives — contracted and variable 67 

Simple and contracted Adjectivesjoined to nouns &c 69 
Phrases in the affirmative, negative, and interro- 
gative form TO 

Gaixiinal numbers T3 

Distributive numbers 76 

Multiplying numbers 79 

Multiplying-distributive numbers 80 

Ordinal numbers marking the order and succes- 
sion of animate objects and personified things 82 
Oi*dinal numbers marking the order and succession 

of things only 83 

Oi-dinal numbei*s marking the order and succes- 
sion of chapter's, ver8es7 sections of laws, &c. 84 

Fi-actional numbers 84 

Multiple numbers 85 

Vocabulary of Adverbs 86 

Propositions 88 

Conjunctions 89 

Interjections 90 



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— 228 — 
familiar phrases to facilitate conversation 

Page 

1. For questioning, affirming, denying, dhc 91 

2. To inquire after health...* 98 

3. Of the age 99 

4. On the hour 101 

5. On the weather 104 

6. On the time of the night 107 

T. On arriving at the hotel..: 108 

8. To embark in a ship 109 

9. On the point of leaving Ill 

10. On board the steamboat 112 

11. On traveling by water in the Indian country. 113 

12. Usual conversation between two indians when 

they meet together in their hunting ground. 116 
Examples showing the transposition of words 

allowed in the Abenakis language 118 

The affixes ^ ji' and ' ba* transposed 119 

PAET THIRD 

The 2^ctrls of speech that may bo conjugated 121 

Conjugation of the animate substantive rCmitdgiues, 

my father 121 

Conjugation of the animate substantive kaoz a, 

cow 123 

Conjugation of the animate substantive alemos, 

adog 125 

Conjugation of the inanimate substantive paskhi- 

gan.agxin 127 

Conjugation of the possessive verb o'kaozemimuk, 

to have a cow..... ...» ,, 128 



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— 229 — 

Paoe 
Conjugation of the adjective-verb, wdhigimuk, to be 

white..' 130 

Negative conjugation of the possessive verb, okao- 

zemimuky to have a cow 183 

Indefinite conjugation of the animate objective 

verb, M?a/^w^mwA', to have 136 

Pinite conjugation of the animate objective verb, 

wajdndmukj to have 139 

Indefinite conjugation of the inanimate objective 

verb, wajdndzikj to have 141 

Finite conjugation of the inanimate objective verb, 

wajdndziky to have *.. 145 

Negative conjugation of the indefinite verb, wajd- 

ndmuk, to have *. 146 

Negative conjugation of the finite verb, wajdnd- 
mukj to have <,.., 149 

Negative conjugation of the indefinite verb, wajdnd- 
ziky to have » 151 

Negative conjugation of tho finite verb, wajdndziky 

to have 154 

Dubitative conjugation of the animate verb 156 

Dubitative conjugation of the inanimate verb 158 

Dubitative-negative conjugation of the verb to 

have 161 

Conjugation of the verb aimuky to be 162 

Indefinite conjugation of the animate objective 

verb nanihdmuky to see 165 

Finite conjugation of the animate objective verb 

namih6muk, to see 168 

Indefinite conjugation of the inanimate objective 

\ orb namitdzik, to see 172 



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— 230 — 

Page 
Finite conjugation of the ndzikfinite objective verb 

namit6zikto see 175 

The passive verb kazalmegwzimuk^ to be loved 177 

The relative verb kazalmSmuk, (I... thee, &c.).... 179 
The relative verb kozalmdmuk, Thou... me, &c.). 180 
List of verbs most frequently met with in the 

Abenakis language 182 

Synoptical illustrations showing the numerous 

modifications of the Abenakis verb 195 

Miscellaneous remarks on Nouns, Adjectives and 

Verbs 203 

Etymology of Indian names of certain localities, 

rivers, lakes, etc., etc 205 

Signification of the names of the months 223 



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B<y 



UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



3 9015 02045 7779 



JAN 4 1939 




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